"Volatile organic emissions were characterized when oily petroleum sludges from refineries were incorporated in soils under controlled laboratory conditions. The sludges tested included three of the five listed hazardous wastes for the refining industry: dissolved air flotation float, slop oil emulsion solids, and API separator sludge. The volatile components of the sludges were first identified. Then the effects of air temperature and humidity, wind speed, soil type, temperature and moisture, sludge loading and volatility, and method of waste application were studied. The volatile components identified in the sludge were also present in the emissions from the soil-waste mixtures. The quantity of emissions was most affected by the sludge volatility, sludge loading, application method, and atmospheric humidity; the cumulative emissions at a given period of time could be correlated with these operational variables. The emission rate or level was not significantly affected by soil type or soil moisture. An expression for estimating the rate of emissions as a function of elapsed time after application could not be developed from the data. Although every effort was made to simulate actual land treatment conditions, it was not possible to apply these laboratory findings directly to predict full-scale results."