||Toxicity of Flucythrinate to Gammarus lacustris (Amphipoda), Pteronarcys dorsata (Plecoptera) and Brachycentrus americanus (Trichoptera): Importance of Exposure Duration.
Anderson, R. L. ;
Shubat, P. ;
||Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN. ;Wisconsin Univ.-Superior. Center for Lake Superior Environmental Studies.
Hazardous materials ;
Environmental surveys ;
Water pollution ;
Laboratory animals ;
Water pollution effects(Animals)
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The effect of the synthetic pyrethroid flucythrinate on three non-target invertebrates was evaluated using continual and short-time exposure methods. Both methods show toxic action at measured concentrations 0.100 micrograms/litre. The use of both approaches pointed toward the importance of exposure time in hazard assessment. Exposures for a short time followed by an extended observation period in insecticide-free water show that a lethal exposure can occur in less time than estimated from continually exposed animals. For example, continually exposed Gammarus lacustris had a 72 h LC50 of 0.12 micrograms/litre. However, exposure for only 17.6 h at 0.12 micrograms/litre will kill 50% of the exposed animals during an extended observation time. The use of both approaches can also provide insights into minimum exposure times for each test concentration, and the possibility of post-exposure mortality.