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RECORD NUMBER: 2 OF 4

OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Assessment of large-scale photovoltaic materials production.
Author Gandel, Martin G. ; Dillard, Paul A. ; Sears, D. Richard ; Ko, S. M. ; Bourgeois., S. V. ;
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
GANDEL, M. G.
DILLARD, P. A.
SEARS, D. R.
Gandel, Martin G.
Dillard, Paul A.
Sears, D. Richard .
CORP Author United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development.
Publisher Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development,
Year Published 1977
Report Number EPA-600/7-77-087; LMSC-HREC-TR-D497252; EPA-68-02-1331
Stock Number PB-272 604
OCLC Number 56296596
Additional Subjects Solar cells ; Photovoltaic cells ; Economic analysis ; Commodity management ; Silicon solar cells ; Cadmium sulfide solar cells ; Gallium arsenides ; Raw materials ; Production ; Solar energy conversion ; Photovoltaic conversion ; Management planning ; Solid waste disposal ; Environmental impacts ; Pollution ; Toxicity ; Process charting ; Silicon chlorides ; Forecasting ;
Internet Access
Description Access URL
http://nepis.epa.gov/Exe/ZyPDF.cgi?Dockey=900G0C00.PDF
Holdings
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
Modified
Checkout
Status
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 600/7-77-087 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 04/21/2014
ERAD  EPA-600/7-77-087 Region 9 Library/San Francisco,CA 04/27/2016
ESAD  EPA 600-7-77-087 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB-272 604 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. NTIS 06/23/1988
Collation (Book 100 pages +).
Abstract
Solar cell production at rates needed to supply continuously 1% of projected U.S. power requirements in the year 2000 is examined. Si and CdS are followed from raw material extraction to finished cell; GaAs is reviewed less thoroughly. Numerical data are developed for air, water, and solid wastes, and compared with corresponding effects of equivalent coal-electric power. Mass and energy balance data are derived from flow sheets developed for this report. For Si, major problems requiring engineering solutions are material and energy inefficiencies. Very large byproduct streams should be eliminated to increase yield by as much as 59% or decrease air pollutant releases by 37% on a process weight basis. Power consumption in cell production creates indirect air pollutant emissions over half as large as those created by the coal-burning plants silicon might replace. CdS and GaAs are not as energy inefficient. Their metallic raw materials are themselves byproducts of other smelting operations. Atmospheric cadmium releases, and the potential for Cd or As spills are major problem areas.
Notes
EPA-600/7-77-087 August 1977. "Interagency energy-environment research and development program report" -- Cover.