Control of Respiration in Aquatic Vertebrates -- Overview of the Respiratory System -- Gas Transport and Gill Function in Water-Breathing Fish -- Patterns of Acid-Base Regulation During Exposure to Hypercarbia in Fishes -- Buoyancy Control in Aquatic Vertebrates -- Gas Exchange and Control of Respiration in Air-Breathing Teleost Fish -- Effects of Temperature on Cardiac Function in Teleost Fish -- Physiological Evidence Indicates Lungfish as a Sister Group to the Land Vertebrates -- Aestivation in Amphibians, Reptiles, and Lungfish -- Evolution of pulmonary mechanics and respiratory control -- Trade-offs in the Evolution of the Respiratory Apparatus of Chordates -- Environmental Selection Pressures Shaping the Pulmonary Surfactant System of Adult and Developing Lungs -- Midbrain Structures and Control of Ventilation in Amphibians -- Comparative Aspects of Hypoxia Tolerance of the Ectothermic Vertebrate Heart -- Control of the Heart and of Cardiorespiratory Interactions in Ectothermic Vertebrates -- The Endocrine-Paracrine Control of the Cardiovascular System -- Stoking the Brightest Fires of Life Among Vertebrates -- Respiratory Physiology of Birds: Metabolic Control -- Prenatal Development of Cardiovascular Regulation in Avian Species -- Control of Breathing in Birds: Implications for High-Altitude Flight -- Mammalian and Human Physiology -- Peripheral Chemoreceptors in Mammals: Structure, Function and Transduction -- Central Chemosensitivity in Mammals -- Human Exercise Physiology. The focus of this book is the evolution of cardiovascular and respiratory control in vertebrates. Life originated in water, which has constantly changing temperatures and O2 levels. Fish gills can extract up to 80% of their inspired O2, because they have a countercurrent bloodstream. Oxygen sensors have been found within the gill arches of ray-finned fish such as carp and trout, and these O2 sensors screen the inspired water and the capillary blood. Very likely, land vertebrates and the lungfish arose as a sister group, and both possess real lungs. Lungfish include 6 species, inhabiting shallow lakes or rivers, whereas the second ramification includes all the land vertebrates. A possible ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates has been discovered in China, and this fossil (Styloichthys) bridges a gap. Living 417 million years ago, it could represent one of the last ramifications before the common ancestor to the lungfish and land vertebrates. In addition, rather constant atmospheric O2 levels permit a joint acid-base regulation by the lung and the kidney. Likewise, lungfish and land vertebrates share a central control of pulmonary ventilation, while the peripheral receptor contribution to acid-base regulation is minor.