The report gives results of subjecting 27 U.S. coals to float/sink, acid, and ion-exchange treatments. From these treatments, coal fractions were obtained and analyzed to determine the organic and mineral associations of 45 elements. Of the elements studied, B, Be, Br, Ge, and Sb were consistently classified organic; sulfide-forming elements (Zn, As, Cd, and Fe) were classified inorganic; and others (e.g., Al, Ca, Ga, Ni, P, Si, and Ti) were intermediate, or variable in their association. Three general observations were made; (1) the total concentration of an element in coal is not indicative of its concentration in the organic phase; (2) because concentrations vary widely, an accurate appraisal of trace and minor element associations requires that each coal be evaluated separately; and (3) the highest concentrations of trace and minor elements in coal occur in the mineral matter. Despite evidence that many elements exhibit some degree of organic association, most of the trace and minor elements in these coals were in a mineral form. Thus many elements could be significantly reduced by physical cleaning. The degree of reduction depends on the mineral, its size, and its distribution.