||Immunologic Effects of Nickel: I. Suppression of Cellular and Humoral Immunity.
Smialowicz, R. J. ;
Rogers, R. R. ;
Riddle, M. M. ;
Stott, G. A. ;
||Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Nickel chloride ;
Laboratory animals ;
Cellular immunity ;
Humoral immunity ;
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The effects of nickel chloride on the cellular and humoral immune responses of mice were studied. A single intramuscular injection of nickel chloride (18.3 mg/kg) caused a significant involution of the thymus within 2 days following treatment. Significant reductions in the in vitro mitogen-stimulated response of lymphocytes from nickel chloride-treated mice (24 hr following a single injection of 18.3 or 36.6 mg/kg) were observed for the T-cell mitogens phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A), and the B- and T-cell mitogen pokeweed mitogen (PWM) but not the B-cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Theta-positive but not Ig-positive spleen cells were significantly reduced in nickel-treated mice compared with controls. Significant suppression of the primary antibody response to the T-cell dependent antigen sheep red blood cells was observed following a single injection of 18.3 mg/kg NiCl2. Natural killer (NK) cell activity was significantly suppressed following a single injection of 18.3 mg/kg NiCl2. The administration of NiCl2 (18.3 mg/kg) also decreased the amount of endotoxin required to kill 50% of treated mice, although this was not statistically significant. In all cases the immunosuppressive effects of NiCl2 were found to be transient with responses returning to normal within a few days.