From the Series Editor -- Preface -- Contributors -- The Editors -- Author Index -- Part I: Tributes & Introduction -- 1. Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose (1858-1937): A Pioneer in Photosynthesis Research and Discoverer of Unique Carbon Assimilation in Hydrilla; A.S. Raghavendra, Govindjee -- 2. Constance Endicott Hartt (1900-1984) and the Path of Carbon in the Sugarcane Leaf; A.A. Benson, A. Maretzki -- 3. Introduction; A.S. Raghavendra, R. F. Sage -- Part II: New Physiological and Developmental Perspectives -- 4. C4 photosynthesis: Kranz Forms and Single-Cell C4 in Terrestrial Plants; G.E. Edwards, E.V. Voznesenskaya -- 5. Single-Cell C4 Photosynthesis in Aquatic Plants; G. Bowes -- 6. Photorespiration - The Bridge to C4 Photosynthesis; H. Bauwe -- 7. Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in C4 Plants; S. Kopriva -- 8. Nitrogen and Water Use Efficiency of C4 plants; O. Ghannoum et al -- 9. Development of Leaves in C4 plants - Anatomical Features that Support C4 Metabolism; T. Nelson -- 10. C4 Plants and Temperature, with Special Reference to Low Temperature Adaptations; R. F. Sage et al -- Part III: Molecular Basis of C4 Pathway -- 11. Transport Processes - Connecting the Reactions of C4 Photosynthesis; A. Bräutigam, A.P.M. Weber -- 12. C4 Gene Expression in Mesophyll and Bundle Sheath Cells; J.O. Berry et al -- 13. C4-Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase; U. Gowik, P. Westhoff -- 14. C4 Decarboxylases. Different Biochemical Problem, the Provision of CO2 to Rubisco in the Bundle Sheath Cells; M.F. Drincovich et al -- 15. Structure, Function, and Post-translational Regulation of C4 Pyruvate Orthophosphate Dikinase; C.J. Chastain -- Part IV: Diversity and Evolution -- 16. C4 Photosynthesis Origins in the Monocots: A Review and Reanalysis; E.H. Roalson -- 17. The Geologic History of C4 Plants; C.P. Osborne -- Part V: C4 Engineering and Bioenergy -- 18. Hurdles to Engineering Greater Photosynthetic Rates in Crop Plants - C4 Rice; J.N. Burnell -- 19. C4 Species as Energy Crops; M.B. Jones -- Index. The C4 pathway of photosynthesis was discovered and characterized, more than four decades ago. Interest in C4 pathway has been sustained and has recently been boosted with the discovery of single-cell C4 photosynthesis and the successful introduction of key C4-cycle enzymes in important crops, such as rice. Further, cold-tolerant C4 plants are at the verge of intense exploitation as energy crops. Rapid and multidisciplinary progress in our understanding of C4 plants warrants a comprehensive documentation of the available literature. The book, which is a state-of-the-art overview of several basic and applied aspects of C4 plants, will not only provide a ready source of information but also triggers further research on C4 photosynthesis. Written by internationally acclaimed experts, it provides an authoritative source of progress made in our knowledge of C4 plants, with emphasis on physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, biogeography, evolution, besides bioengineering C4 rice and biofuels. The book is an advanced level textbook for postgraduate students and a reference book for researchers in the areas of plant biology, cell biology, biotechnology, agronomy, horticulture, ecology and evolution.