||Alliance Technologies Corp., Chapel Hill, NC. ;East-West Environment and Policy Inst., Honolulu, HI. ;Philippines Univ., Diliman, Quezon City. Coll. of Engineering. ;Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA.;Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.
The report gives results of sampling of combustion gases released by household cookstoves in Manila, Philippines. In a total of 24 samples, 14 cookstoves were tested, fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene (three kinds of stoves), charcoal, and wood. Five ambient samples were analyzed for carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), total non-methane organic compounds (TNMOCs), total alkanes, total alkenes, terpenes, total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), 88 individual hydrocarbons, total unidentified hydrocarbons, three chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and five other halocarbons. Results generally confirm increasing emissions for nearly every measured contaminant of fuels, moving down the energy ladder from gaseous to liquid to processed solid to unprocessed solid. The detailed speciation provided can potentially assist in predicting health risks from such emissions. Although the sample size was far too small to give much confidence in the results, extrapolation of the emission ratios (each gas relative to CO2) to global estimates indicates that published global inventories of several gases important to atmospheric chemistry may be somewhat too small for the fuelwood combustion category. The greenhouse impact of non-CO2 greenhouse gas emissions may rival or exceed those from CO2 alone, when weighted.