General considerations -- The Golgi apparatus and main discoveries in the field of intracellular transport -- The Golgi apparatus as a crossroads in intracellular traffic -- Main machineries operating at the Golgi apparatus -- SNAREs -- Rabs -- COPII -- COPI: mechanisms and transport roles -- Arfs and Arls: models for Arf family members in membrane traffic at the Golgi -- COG complex -- The TRAPP complex -- The role of Ca2 in the regulation of intracellular transport -- Golgi glycosylation enzymes -- Nucleotide sugar transporters of the Golgi apparatus -- Luminal lectins -- The Golgi ribbon and the function of the Golgins -- Functional cross talk between membrane trafficking and cell signalling -- The role of the cytoskeleton in the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus -- The dynamin-cortactin complex as a mediator of vesicle formation at the trans-Golgi network -- The geometry of organelles of the secretory pathway -- Main transport steps -- ER-to-Golgi transport -- Intra-Golgi transport -- Structure and domain organization of the trans- Golgi network -- Golgi-to-PM transport -- Protein transport from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes -- The transport of soluble lysosomal hydrolases from the Golgi complex to lysosomes -- Transport of lysosomal membrane proteins from the Golgi complex to lysosomes -- Retrograde endosome-to-TGN transport -- Retrograde plasma membrane-to-Golgi apparatus transport -- Interactions between endocytosis and secretory transport -- Origins of the regulated secretory pathway -- Secretion and endocytosis in endothelial cells -- Formation of mucin granules -- Golgi apparatus and epithelial cell polarity -- Golgi apparatus inheritance -- Peculiarities of intracellular transport in different organisms -- Features of the plant Golgi apparatus -- Yeast Golgi apparatus -- Morphodynamics of the yeast Golgi apparatus -- Structure and function of the Golgi organelle in parasitic protists -- Evolution of the Golgi complex -- General conclusions -- Concluding remarks, questions, and perspectives. Preface th In 2008, we celebrate the 110 anniversary of the ?rst description of the complex apparato reticolare interno by Camillo Golgi in the Bollettino della Societa Medico-Chirurgica di Pavia. The biography of Camillo Golgi, and the Golgi apparatus history have impressively been described by Paolo Mazzarello in his book ?The Hidden Structure. A Scienti?c Biography of Camillo Golgi? th (Oxford University Press, 1999). During the 20 century, Camillo Golgi?sdisc- ery had a changing up and down and up history, timely being assessed as an artefact, and then again coming into the centre stage of cell biologic research. Today, it is well established that the Golgi apparatus constitutes a main cro- roads in the intracellular transport routes of the biosynthetic, endocytic, and recycling systems. During the past decades, multiple new discoveries contrib- ed to the understanding of the organization and the functions of the complex organelle (see Chapter 1.1). In 1997, the excellent book about the Golgi - paratus edited by J. Roth and E. Berger provided a comprehensive summar- ing presentation of the state of research 100 years after the ?rst description of the organelle. Now, after further 10 years, it is necessary to summarize again what it is known about the complex organization of Camillo Golgi?s apparatus.