||Health Effects Research Lab., Cincinnati, OH. ;Page Associates, Gaithersburg, MD. ;Pathology Associates, Inc., West Chester, OH.
Male and female Sprague--Dawley rats were administered the sodium salt of monochloroacetic acid (SMCA) by oral gavage for a period of 90 consecutive days. Dosage levels of 15, 30, 60 or 120 mg/kg per day were employed. SMCA clearly induced toxicity in both females and males, with the greatest severity in the male animals. Both the liver and kidneys were identified as target organs. At 120 mg/kg per day, 30% of females and 80% of the males died, most within the first 2 days of treatment. Hemorrhagic and congested lungs (possibly a postmortem change) were seen in the early deaths (1--3 days) whereas liver lesions were observed in later deaths. In addition, there was nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated creatinine, blood calcium (BCAL), and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Hepatotoxicity was indicated by increases in the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Both organs showed increased organ-to-body weight ratios. Microscopic examination revealed a significant (P < or = 0.001) increase in chronic renal nephropathy and increased splenic pigmentation at 60 mg/kg per day in the males. Based on the observation of toxicity at all treatment levels in males, a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) of 15 mg/kg per day is proposed for a 90-day exposure to SMCA by oral gavage to the Sprague--Dawley rat. (Copyright (c) 1991 Elsevier Scientific Publishers Ireland Ltd.)