The results of an analysis of effluent samples obtained from seven energy- related activities are presented. The energy-related processes included coal strip mining, oil refineries, oil shale operations, coal-fired power plants, coal liquefaction operations, coal gasification processes, and geothermal energy production. Chemical analyses were performed on solid and liquid effluents associated with each of these activities to identify organic and inorganic components. Organic compounds were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/data system techniques. Sample preparation methods permitted determination of purgeable (volatile) and extractable (semivolatile) organics. Samples were analyzed for mercury using a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedure. Approximately 70 other elements were determined in the samples by spark source mass spectrometry. Because much relevant data were being generated concurrently with this research effort, a state-of-the-art review, was updated regularly. The reliability of the data reviewed was evaluated according to preselected criteria of sample source, sampling and analytical methodology, and data source. Information gathered during the review was used to identify gaps in existing data on characterization of energy-related wastes and effluents and thereby serves as a guide to selection of sites for the samples analyzed in this research effort.