||Effects of Copper, Nickel and Zinc on the Life Cycle of the Caddisfly 'Clistoronia magnifica' (Limnephilidae).
Nebeker, A. V. ;
Savonen, C. ;
Baker, R. J. ;
McCrady, J. K. ;
||Corvallis Environmental Research Lab., OR.
Life cycles ;
Clistoronia magnifica ;
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The caddisfly Clistoronia magnifica (Limnephilidae) was exposed to copper, nickel and zinc in life cycle tests. The copper test included continuous exposure of first generation aquatic larvae and pupae, second generation larvae and pupae and third generation larvae. The aerial adults and eggs were exposed only to body burdens obtained as larvae and pupae. Nickel and zinc tests included first and second generation exposure. Copper concentrations of greater than 17 micrograms/l prevented completion of the life cycle, and significant reduction in adult emergence occurred at 13.0 micrograms/l. The no-observed-effect level for copper was 8.3 micrograms/l. Nickel concentrations of greater than 250 micrograms/l prevented completion of the life cycle. The no-observed-effect level for nickel was 66 micrograms/l.