||Hydrologic Response of Ice-Covered Streams.
Paily, Poothrikka P. ;
Macagno, Enzo O. ;
Kennedy., John F. ;
||Iowa State Water Resources Research Inst., Ames.
||ISWRRI-56; DI-14-31-0001-3280; OWRR-B-018-IA; W74-07832 ; OWRR-B-018-IA(1)
Water pollution ;
Cooling water ;
Heat transfer ;
Air water interactions ;
Electric power plants ;
Mathematical models ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
The increase in water temperature in natural streams due to waste heat disposal from thermal power plants leads to extensive ice-free reaches during winter periods. Once the hot water is completely mixed with the streamflow, the temperature distribution in the stream is mainly controlled by the surface heat exchange between water and the atmosphere; the mathematical formulation of the temperature distribution is represented by the one-dimensional convection-diffusion equation. A closed-form solution of the one-dimensional unsteady convection-diffusion equation is developed to predict temperature distributions in streams and the lengths of ice-free reaches downstream from the thermal discharge sections. (Modified author abstract)