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Main Title The Constitution of the United States of America : analysis and interpretation : analysis of cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States to June 28, 2002 /
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Killian, Johnny H.
Costello, George.
Thomas, Kenneth R.
CORP Author United States.
Publisher U.S. G.P.O. : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O.,
Year Published 2004
OCLC Number 60822213
ISBN 0160723795; 9780160723797
Subjects Constitutions--United States. ; Constitutional law--United States.
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Text version:
PDF version:
PDF version:
Text version:
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Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJCM  CONSTITUTIONAL LAW Law Library/Washington,DC 10/21/2005
Collation xxii, 2608 pages ; 29 cm.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
Contents Notes
Kept up to date by pocket parts. Public Law 91-589 -- Introduction to the 2002 edition -- Historical note on formation of the Constitution -- Constitution Of The United States of America: Literal Print -- Amendments Of The Constitution Of The United States Of America -- Proposed Amendments Not Ratified By The States -- Constitution Of The United States of America: With Analysis -- Preamble: -- Purpose and effect of the Preamble -- Article 1: Legislative Department: -- Section 1: Legislative Powers: -- Separation of Powers and Checks and Balances -- Theory Elaborated and implemented -- Judicial Enforcement -- Bicameralism -- Enumerated, Implied, Resulting, and Inherent Powers -- Delegation of Legislative Power: -- History of the Doctrine of Nondelegability -- Nature and Scope of Permissible Delegations -- Delegations to the President in Areas of Shared Authority -- Delegations to States and to Private Entities -- Particular Subjects or Concerns: Closer Scrutiny or Uniform Standard? -- Congressional Investigations -- Source of the Power to Investigate -- Investigations of Conduct of Executive Department -- Investigations of Members of Congress -- Investigations in Aid of Legislation -- Sanctions of the Investigatory Power: Contempt -- Section 2: House Of Representatives: -- Clause 1: Congressional Districting -- Elector Qualifications -- Clause 2: Qualifications of Members of Congress -- When the Qualifications must be Possessed -- Exclusivity of Constitutional Qualifications -- Congressional Additions -- State Additions -- Clause 3: Apportionment of Seats in the House -- Census Requirement -- Clause 4: Vacancies -- Clause 5: Officers and Power of Impeachment -- Section 3: Senate: -- Clauses 1: Composition and Selection -- Clause 2: Classes of Senators -- Clause 3: Qualifications -- Clause 4: Vice President -- Clause 5: Officers -- Clauses 6: Trial of Impeachment -- Clause 7: Judgments on Impeachment -- Sections 4: Elections: -- Clause 1: Congressional Power to Regulate -- Legislation protecting Electoral Process -- Clause 2: Time of Assembling -- Section 5: Powers And Duties Of The Houses: -- Clauses 1: Power to Judge Elections -- Clause 2: Rules of Proceedings -- Clause 3: Duty to Keep a Journal -- Clause 4: Adjournments -- Power to Judge Elections -- Quorum to Do Business -- Rules of Proceedings -- Powers of the Houses Over Members -- Duty to Keep a Journal -- Section 6: Rights And Disabilities Of Members: -- Clause 1: Compensation and Immunities of Members -- Congressional Pay -- Privilege From Arrest -- Privilege of Speech or Debate -- Clause 2: Disabilities -- Appointment to Executive Office -- Incompatible Offices -- Section 7: Bills and Resolutions -- Clause 1: Revenue Bills --Clause 2: Approval by the President -- Clause 3: Presentation of Resolutions -- Legislative Process -- Revenue Bills -- Approval by the President -- Veto Power -- Presentation of Resolutions -- Section 8: Powers Of Congress: -- Clause 1: Power to Tax And Spend -- Kinds of Taxes Permitted -- Purposes of Taxation -- Spending For the General Welfare -- Social Security Act Cases -- Conditional Grants-in-Aid -- Earmarked Funds -- Debts of the United States -- Clause 2: Borrowing Power -- Clause 3: Commerce Power -- Power to Regulate commerce -- Interstate Versus Foreign Commerce -- Instruments of Commerce -- Congressional Regulation of Waterways -- Congressional Regulation of Land Transportation -- Congressional Regulation of Commerce as Traffic -- Acts of Congress Prohibiting Commerce -- Commerce Clause as a Source of National Police Power -- Commerce Clause As a Restraint On State Powers -- State Taxation and Regulation: The Old Law -- State Taxation and Regulation: The Modern Law -- Foreign Commerce and State Powers -- Concurrent Federal and State Jurisdiction -- Commerce With Indian Tribes -- Clause 4: Naturalization and Bankruptcies -- Naturalization and Citizenship -- Aliens -- Bankruptcy -- Clauses 5 and 6 Money -- Fiscal and Monetary Powers of Congress -- Clause 7: Post Office -- Postal Power -- Clause 8: Copyrights and Patents -- Copyright and Patents -- Clause 9: Creation of Courts -- Clause 10: Maritime Crimes -- Piracies, Felonies, and Offenses Against the Law of Nations -- Clauses 11, 12, 13, and 14: War; Military Establishment -- War Power -- Power to Raise and Maintain Armed Forces -- War Legislation -- Constitutional Rights In Wartime -- Clauses 15 and 16: Militia -- Militia Clauses -- Clause 17: District of Columbia; Federal Property -- Seat of the Government -- Authority Over Places Purchased -- Clause 18: Necessary and Proper Clause -- Necessary and Proper Clause -- Section 9: Powers Denied To Congress: -- Clause 1: Importation of Slaves -- In General -- Clause 2: Habeas Corpus Suspension-- In General -- Clause 3: Bills of Attainder and Ex Post Facto Laws -- Bills of Attainder -- Ex Post Facto Laws -- Clause 4: Taxes -- Direct Taxes -- Clause 5: Duties on exports from States -- Taxes On Exports -- Clause 6: Preference to Ports -- No Preference Clause -- Clause 7: Appropriations and Accounting of Public Money -- Appropriations -- Payment of Claims -- Clause 8: Titles of Nobility; Presents -- In General -- Section 10: Powers Denied To The States: -- Clause 1: Treaties, Coining Money, Ex Post Facto Laws, Impairing Contracts -- Treaties, Alliances, or Confederations -- Bills of Credit -- Legal Tender -- Bills of Attainder -- Ex Post Facto Laws -- Scope of the Provision -- Denial of Future Privileges to Past Offenders -- Changes in Punishment -- Changes in Procedure -- Obligation of Contracts --Clause 2: Duties on Exports and Imports -- Duties On Exports or Imports -- Clause 3: Tonnage Duties, Keeping Troops, Making Compacts, War -- Tonnage Duties -- Keeping Troops -- Interstate Compacts -- Article 2: Executive Department: -- Section 1: President: -- Clause 1: Powers and Term of the President -- Nature and Scope of Presidential Power -- Tenure -- Clauses 2-3: Election -- Clause 4: Election -- Electoral College -- Clause 5: Qualifications -- Clause 6: Presidential Succession -- Clause 7: Compensation and Emoluments -- Clause 8: Oath of Office -- Section 2: Powers And Duties Of The President: -- Clause 1: Commander-in-Chiefship; Presidential Advisers; Pardons -- Commander-In-Chief -- Martial Law and Constitutional Limitations -- Presidential Advisers -- Pardons and Reprieves -- Clause 2: Treaties and Appointment of Officers -- Treaty-Making Power -- President and Senate -- Treaties as Law of the Land -- Constitutional Limitations of the treaty Power -- Interpretation and Termination of Treaties as International compacts -- Indian Treaties -- International Agreements Without Senate Approval -- Executive Establishment -- Appointments and Congressional Regulation of Offices -- Stages of Appointment Process -- Removal Power -- Presidential Aegis: Demands for Papers -- Clause 3: Vacancies during Recess of Senate -- Recess Appointments -- Section 3: Legislative, Diplomatic, and Law Enforcement Duties Of The President -- Legislative Role of the President -- Conduct of Foreign Relations -- President As Law Enforcer -- Protection of American Rights of Person and Property Abroad -- President Action In the Domain of Congress: the Steel Seizure Case -- Presidential Immunity From Judicial Direction -- Commissioning Officers -- Section 4: Impeachment: -- Impeachment. Article 3: Judicial Department: -- Section 1: Judicial Power, Courts, Judges: -- Organization of Courts, Tenure, and Compensation of Judges -- One Supreme Court -- Inferior Courts -- Compensation -- Courts of Specialized Jurisdiction -- Legislative Courts -- Noncourt Entities in the Judicial Branch -- Judicial Power -- Characteristics and Attributes of Judicial Power -- Finality of Judgment as an Attribute of Judicial Power -- Ancillary Powers of Federal Courts -- Contempt Power -- Sanctions Other Than Contempt -- Power to Issue Writs: The Act of 1789 -- Congressional Limitation of the Injunctive Power -- Rule-Making Power and Powers Over Process -- Appointment of Referees, Masters, and Special Aids -- Power to Admit and Disbar Attorneys -- Sections 2: Judicial Power And Jurisdiction: -- Clause 1: Cases and Controversies; Grants of Jurisdiction -- Judicial Power and Jurisdiction-Cases and Controversies -- Judicial Review -- Jurisdiction of Supreme Court and Inferior Federal Courts -- Suits Affecting Ambassadors, Other Public Ministers, and Consuls -- Cases of Admiralty and Maritime Jurisdiction -- Cases to Which the United States Is A Party -- Suits Between Two or More States -- Controversies Between a State and Citizens of Another State -- Controversies Between Citizens of Different States -- Controversies Between Citizens of the Same State Claiming Land Under Grants of Different States -- Controversies Between a State, or the Citizens Thereof, and Foreign States, Citizens, or Subjects -- Clause 2: Original And Appellate Jurisdiction; Exceptions and Regulations of Appellate Jurisdiction -- Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court -- Power of Congress to Control the Federal Courts -- Theory Reconsidered -- Federal-State Court Relations -- Clause 3: Trial by Jury -- Section 3: Treason: -- Clause 1: Definition and Limitations -- Treason -- Clause 2: Punishment -- Corruption of the Blood and Forfeiture -- Article 4: States' Relations: -- Section 1: Full Faith And Credit: -- Sources and effect of Full Faith and Credit -- Private International Law -- Judgments: effect to be given in Forum State -- In General -- Jurisdiction: A Prerequisite to Enforcement of Judgments -- Divorce Decrees: Domicile as the Jurisdictional Prerequisite -- Other Types of Decrees -- Penal Judgments: Types Entitled to Recognition -- Fraud as a Defense to suits on Foreign Judgments -- Recognition of Rights Based Upon Constitutions, Statutes, Common Law -- Development of the Modern Rule -- Full Faith and Credit: Miscellany -- Scope of Powers of Congress Under Provision -- Judgments of Foreign States -- Section 2: Interstate Comity: -- Clause 1: State Citizenship: Privileges and Immunities -- Origin and Purpose -- How Implemented -- Citizens of Each State -- All Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the Several States -- Discrimination in Private Rights -- Access to Courts -- Taxation -- Clause 2: Interstate Rendition -- Duty to Surrender Fugitives From Justice -- Fugitive From Justice Defined -- Procedure for Removal -- Trial of Fugitives After Removal -- Clause 3: Fugitives from Labor -- Section 3: Admission Of New States ; Property Of United States: -- Clause 1: Admission of New Stats to Union -- Doctrine of the Equality of States -- Clause 2: Property of the United States -- Property and Territory: Powers of Congress -- Section 4: Obligations Of United States To States: -- Guarantee of Republican Form of Government -- Article 5: Mode Of Amendment: -- Amendment of the Constitution -- Scope of the Amending Power -- Proposing a Constitutional Amendment -- Proposals by Congress -- Convention Alternative -- Ratification -- Authentication and Proclamation -- Judicial Review Under Article 5 -- Article 6: Prior Debts, National Supremacy, Oaths Of Office: -- Clause 1: Validity of Prior Debts and engagements -- Prior Debts -- Clause 2: Supremacy of the Constitution, Laws and Treaties -- National Supremacy -- Marshall's Interpretation of the National Supremacy Clause -- Task of the Supreme Court Under the Clause: Preemption -- Operation of the Supremacy Clause -- Obligation of State Courts Under the Supremacy Clause -- Supremacy Clause Versus the Tenth Amendment -- Federal Instrumentalities and Personnel and State Police Power -- Doctrine of Federal Exemption From State Taxation -- Summation and Evaluation -- Clause 3: Oath of Office -- Oath of Office -- Power of Congress in Respect to Oaths -- National Duties of State Officers -- Article 7: Ratification -- Amendments To The Constitution -- First through Tenth Amendments: -- Bill Of Rights: -- History -- Formulation and Adoption -- Bill of Rights and the States -- Fourteenth Amendment -- First Amendment: Religion And Expression: -- Religion -- Overview -- First Amendment: Religion And Expression: -- Religion: -- Overview: -- Scholarly commentary -- Court tests applied to Legislation Affecting Religion -- Government Neutrality in Religious Disputes -- Establishment of Religion: -- Financial Assistance to Church-Related Institutions -- Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Released Time -- Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Prayers and Bible Reading -- Governmental Encouragement of Religion in Public Schools: Curriculum Restriction -- Access of Religious Groups to School Property -- Tax Exemptions of Religious Property -- Exemption of Religious Organizations from Generally Applicable Laws -- Sunday Closing Laws -- Conscientious Objection -- Regulation of Religious Solicitation -- Religion in Governmental Observances -- Religious Displays on Government Property -- Miscellaneous -- Free Exercise of Religion: -- Belief-Conduct Distraction -- Mormon Cases -- Jehovah's Witnesses Cases -- Free Exercise Exemption from General Governmental Requirements -- Religious Test Oaths -- Religious Disqualification -- Freedom of Expression-Speech and Press: -- Adoption and Common Law Background -- Freedom of Expression: The Philosophical Basis -- Freedom of Expression: Is There a Difference Between Speech and Press? -- Doctrine of Prior Restraint: -- Injunctions and the Press in Fair Trial Cases -- Obscenity and Prior Restraint -- Subsequent Punishment: Clear and Present Danger and Other Tests: -- Clear and Present Danger -- Adoption of Clear and Present Danger -- Contempt of Court and Clear and Present Danger -- Clear and Present Danger Revised: Dennis -- Balancing -- Absolutist View of the First Amendment, With a Note on "Preferred Position" -- Is There a Present Test? -- Freedom of Belief: -- Flag Salute Cases -- Imposition of Consequences for Holding Certain Beliefs -- Right of Association: -- Political Association -- Conflict Between Organization and Members -- Maintenance of National Security and the First Amendment: -- Punishment of Advocacy -- Compelled Registration of Communist Party -- Punishment for Membership in an organization That Engages in Proscribed Advocacy -- Disabilities Attaching to Membership in Proscribed Organizations -- Employment Restriction and Loyalty Oaths -- Legislative Investigations and the First Amendment -- Interference With War Effort -- Suppression of Communist Propaganda in the Mails -- Exclusion of Certain Aliens as a First Amendment Problem -- Particular Government Regulations that Restrict Expression -- Government as Employer: Political and Other Outside Activities -- Government as Employer: Free Expression Generally -- Government as Educator -- Government as Regulator of the Electoral Process: Elections -- Government as Regulator of the Electoral Process: Lobbying -- Government as Regulator of Labor Relations -- Government as Investigator: Reporter's Privilege -- Government and the Conduct of Trials -- Government as Administrator of Prisons -- Government and Power of the Purse -- Governmental Regulation of Communications Industries -- Commercial Speech -- Taxation -- Labor Relations -- Antitrust Laws -- Radio and Television -- Governmentally Compelled Right of Reply to Newspapers -- Regulations of Cable Television -- Government Restraint of Content of Expression -- Seditious Speech and Seditious Libel -- Fighting Words and Other Threats to the Peace -- Threats of Violence Against Individuals -- Group Libel, Hate Speech -- Defamation -- False Statements -- Invasion of Privacy -- Invasion of Privacy -- Emotional Distress Tort Actions -- Right of Publicity Tort Actions -- Publication of Legally Confidential Information -- Obscenity -- Child Pornography -- Non-obscene But Sexually Explicit and Indecent Expression -- Speech Plus: Constitutional Law of Leafleting, Picketing, and Demonstrating -- Public Forum -- Quasi-Public Places -- Picketing and Boycotts by Labor Unions -- Public Issue Picketing and Parading -- Leafleting, Handbilling, and the Like -- Sound Trucks, Noise -- Door-to-Door Solicitation -- Problem of Symbolic Speech -- Rights of Assembly and Petition -- Background and Development -- Cruikshank Case -- Hague Case. Second Amendment: Bearing Arms: -- In General -- Third Amendment: Quartering Soldiers -- In General -- Fourth Amendment: Search And Seizure: -- Search and Seizure -- History and Scope of the Amendment -- History -- Scope of the Amendment -- Interest Protected -- Arrests and Other Detentions -- Searches and Inspections in Noncriminal Cases -- Searches and Seizure pursuant to warrant -- Issuance by Neutral Magistrate -- Probable Cause -- Particularity -- First Amendment Bearing on Probable Cause and Particularity -- Property Subject to Seizure -- Execution of Warrants -- Valid Searches And Seizures Without Warrants -- Detention Short of Arrest: Stop and Frisk -- Search Incident to Arrest -- Vehicular Searches -- Vessel Searches -- Consent Searches -- Border Searches -- Open Fields -- Plain View -- Public Schools -- Government Offices -- Prisons and Regulation of Probation and Parole -- Drug Testing -- Electronic Surveillance and the Fourth Amendment -- Olmstead Case -- Federal Communications Act -- Nontelephonic Electronic Surveillance -- Berger and Katz Cases -- Warrantless "National Security" Electronic Surveillance -- Enforcing the fourth Amendment: The Exclusionary Rule -- Alternatives to the Exclusionary Rule -- Development of the Exclusionary Rule -- Foundations of the Exclusionary Rule -- Narrowing Application of the Exclusionary Rule -- Operation of the Rule: Standing -- Fifth Amendment: Rights Of Persons: -- Indictment by Grand Jury -- Double Jeopardy -- Development and Scope -- Reprosecution Following Mistrial -- Reprosecution Following Acquittal -- Acquittal by Jury -- Acquittal by the Trial Judge -- Trial Court Rulings Terminating Trial Before Verdict -- Reprosecution Following Conviction -- Reprosecution After Reversal on Defendant's Appeal -- Sentence Increases -- For the Same Offence -- Legislative Discretion as to Multiple Sentences -- Successive Prosecutions for the same Offense -- Same Transaction Problem -- Self-Incrimination -- Development and Scope -- Power to Compel Testimony and Disclosure -- Immunity -- Required Records Doctrine -- Reporting and Disclosure -- Confessions: Police Interrogation, Due Process, and Self-Incrimination -- Common Law Rule -- McNabb-Mallory Doctrine -- State Confession Cases Before Miranda -- From the Voluntariness Standard to Miranda -- Miranda v Arizona -- Operation of the Exclusionary Rule -- Supreme Court Review -- Procedure in the Trial Courts -- Due Process -- History and Scope -- Scope of the Guaranty -- Procedural Due Process -- Generally -- Administrative Proceedings: A Fair Hearing -- Aliens: Entry and Deportation -- Judicial Review of Administrative or Military Proceedings -- Substantive Due Process -- Discrimination -- Congressional Police Measures -- Congressional Regulation of Public Utilities -- Congressional Regulations of Railroads -- Taxation -- Retroactive Taxes -- Deprivation of property: Retroactive Legislation -- Bankruptcy Legislation -- Right to Sue the Government -- Congressional Power to Abolish Common Law Judicial Actions -- Deprivation of Liberty: Economic Legislation -- National Eminent Domain Power -- Overview -- Public Use -- Just Compensation -- Interest -- Rights for Which Compensation Must Be Made -- Consequential Damages -- Enforcement of Right to Compensation -- When Property Is Taken -- Government Activity Not Directed at the Property -- Navigable Waters -- Regulatory Takings -- Sixth Amendment: Rights Of Accused In Criminal Prosecutions: -- Criminal Prosecutions: -- Coverage -- Offenses against the United States -- Right to a Speedy and Public Trial -- Speedy Trial -- Source and Rationale -- Application and Scope -- When the right is Denied -- Public Trial -- Right to Trial by Impartial Jury -- Jury Trial -- Attributes and Function of the Jury -- Criminal Proceedings to Which the Guarantee Applies -- Impartial Jury -- Place of Trial: Jury of the Vicinage -- Notice of Accusation -- Confrontation -- Compulsory Process -- Assistance of Counsel -- Development of Absolute Right to Counsel at Trial -- Powell v Alabama -- Johnson v Zerbst -- Betts v Brady and Progeny -- Gideon v Wainwright -- Protection of the Right to Retained Counsel -- Effective Assistance of Counsel-- Self-Representation --Right to Assistance of Counsel in Nontrial Situations -- Judicial Proceedings Before Trial -- Custodial Interrogation -- Lineups and Other Identification Situations -- Post-Conviction Proceedings -- Noncriminal and Investigatory Proceedings -- Seventh Amendment: Civil Trials -- Trial by Jury in Civil Cases -- Right and the Characteristics of the Civil Jury -- History -- Composition and Functions of Civil Jury -- Courts in Which the Guarantee Applies -- Waiver of the Right -- Application of the Amendment -- Cases "at Common Law" -- Continuing Law-Equity distinction -- Procedures Limiting Jury's Role -- Directed Verdicts -- Jury Trial Under the Federal Employer's Liability Act -- Appeals from State Courts to the Supreme Court -- Eighth Amendment: Further Guarantees In Criminal Cases: -- Excessive Bail -- Excessive Fines -- Cruel and unusual Punishments -- Style of Interpretation -- Application and Scope -- Capital Punishment -- General Validity and Guiding Principles -- Implementation of Procedural Requirements -- Limitations on Capital Punishment: Proportionality -- Limitations on capital Punishment: Diminished Capacity -- Limitations on Capital Punishment: Equality of Application -- Limitations on Habeas Corpus Review of Capital Sentences -- Proportionality -- Prisons and Punishment -- Limitation of the Clause to Criminal Punishments -- Ninth Amendment: Unenumerated Rights: -- Rights Retained by the People -- Tenth Amendment: Reserved Powers: -- Reserved Powers: -- Scope and Purpose -- Effect of Provision on Federal Powers -- Federal Taxing Powers -- Federal Police Power -- Federal Regulations Affecting State Activities and Instrumentalities -- Eleventh Amendment: Suits Against States: -- State Immunity: -- Purpose and Early Interpretation -- Expansion of the Immunity of the States -- Nature of the States' Immunity -- Suits Against States -- Consent to Suit and Waiver -- Congressional Withdrawal of Immunity -- Suits Against State Officials -- Tort Actions Against State Officials -- Twelfth Amendment: Election Of President. Thirteenth Amendment: Slavery And Involuntary Servitude: -- Abolition of Slavery -- Origin and Purpose -- Peonage -- Situations in Which the Amendment Is Inapplicable -- Fourteenth Amendment: Rights Guaranteed: Privileges And Immunities Of Citizenship, Due Process, And Equal Protection: -- Section 1: Rights Guaranteed -- Fourteenth Amendment and States' Rights -- Citizens of the United States -- Privileges or Immunities -- Due Process of Law -- Generally -- Definitions -- Rise and Fall of Economic Substantive Due Process: Overview -- Regulation of Labor Conditions -- Regulation of Business Enterprises: Price Controls -- Regulation of Public Utilities and Common Carriers -- Regulation of Businesses, Corporations, Professions, and Trades -- Protection of State Resources -- Ownership of Real Property: Rights and Limitations -- Health, Safety, and Morals -- Health -- Safety -- Morality -- Vested and Remedial Rights -- State Control over Local Units of Government -- Taxing Power -- Jurisdiction to Tax -- Procedure in Taxation -- Eminent Domain -- Fundamental Rights (Noneconomic Substantive Due Process) -- Procedural Due Process: Civil -- Procedure Which Is Due Process -- Jurisdiction -- Power of the States to Regulate Procedure -- Procedural Due Process: Criminal -- Equal Protection of the Laws -- Traditional Equal Protection: Economic Regulation and Related exercises of the Police Powers -- Equal Protection and Race -- New Equal Protection -- Classifications Meriting Close Scrutiny -- Illegitimacy -- Fundamental Interests: The Political Process -- Right to Travel -- Marriage and Familial Relations -- Sexual Orientation -- Poverty and Fundamental Interests: The Intersection of Due Process and Equal Protection -- Section 2: Apportionment of Representation -- Sections 3 and 4: Disqualification and Public Debt -- Section 5: Enforcement --Enforcement -- Fifteenth Amendment: Rights Of Citizens To Vote: -- Abolition of Suffrage Qualifications on Basis of Race -- Adoption and judicial enforcement -- Adoption -- Judicial View of the Amendment -- Grandfather Clauses -- White Primary -- Literacy tests -- Racial Gerrymandering -- Congressional Enforcement -- State Action -- Federal Remedial Legislation -- Sixteenth Amendment: Income Tax: -- Income Tax -- History and Purpose of the Amendment -- Income Subject to Taxation -- Corporate Dividends: When Taxable -- Corporate Earnings: When Taxable -- Gains: When Taxable -- Income from Illicit Transactions -- Deductions and exemptions -- Diminution of Loss -- Seventeenth Amendment: Popular Election Of Senators: -- Eighteenth Amendment: Prohibition Of Intoxicating Liquors -- Nineteenth Amendment: Women's Suffrage Rights -- Twentieth Amendment: Commencement Of The Terms of Office -- Twenty-First Amendment: Repeal Of Eighteenth Amendment: -- Repeal of Eighteenth Amendment -- Effect of Repeal -- Scope of Regulatory Power conferred upon the States -- Discrimination between Domestic and Imported Products -- Regulation of Transportation and "Through" Shipments -- Regulation of Imports Destined for a Federal Area -- Foreign Imports, Exports; Taxation, Regulation -- Effect of Section 2 upon Other Constitutional Provisions -- Effect on Federal Regulation -- Twenty-Second Amendment: Presidential Tenure -- Limitation of Presidential Terms -- Twenty-Third Amendment: Presidential Electors For The District Of Columbia -- Twenty-Fourth Amendment: Abolition Of The Poll Tax -- Expansion of the Right to Vote -- Twenty-Fifth Amendment: Presidential Vacancy and Disability -- Twenty-Sixth Amendment: Reduction Of Voting Age -- Eighteen-Year-Old Vote -- Twenty-Seventh Amendment: Congressional Pay Limitation -- Regulating Congressional Pay -- Acts Of Congress Held Unconstitutional In Whole Or In Part By The Supreme Court Of The United States -- State Constitutional And Statutory Provisions And Municipal Ordinances Held Unconstitutional Or Held To Be Prempted By Federal Law -- Supreme Court Decisions Overruled By Subsequent Decision -- Table Of Cases -- Index. Popularly known as the Constitution Annotated or "CONAN", encompasses the U.S. Constitution and analysis and interpretation of the U.S. Constitution with in-text annotations of cases decided by the Supreme Court of the United States. The analysis is provided by the Congressional Research Service (CRS) in the Library of Congress.