The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of methoxychlor (MXC) upon the pituitary and hypothalamic components of the male reproductive system at dose levels that were without detectable testicular effects. At 21 days, male Long-Evans rats were gavaged daily with 25 or 50 mg/kg MXC in corn oil. Controls received vehicle only. After 8 weeks of dosing, no significant changes were seen in serum LH, FSH, or prolactin, nor in the pituitary concentrations of LH or FSH. Pituitary prolactin was elevated for both doses, and pituitary fragments perifused in vitro released more prolactin than controls. The concentration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was higher in the mediobasal hypothalamus, but only for the 50 mg/kg group. At this dose, there was a corresponding increase in the KCL-stimulated release of GnRH. The data suggest that previously reported reproductive effects of MXC may be mediated, at least in part, through an elevation in prolactin concentration and release, which in turn is able to influence hypothalamic levels in GnRH.