||Monitoring for Indicator Bacteria in Small Water Systems.
Geldreich, E. E. ;
Rice, E. W. ;
Read, E. J. ;
||Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab. ;Computer Sciences Corp., Cincinnati, OH.
Water supply ;
Water quality ;
Indicator species ;
Water pollution ;
Coliform bacteria ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
Development of a practical microbiological monitoring program for small water systems is urgently needed at the local level for prompt detection of contamination followed by appropriate remedial actions. Three operational measurements are within the capability of the water plant operator: chlorine residual, turbidity, and a basic test for coliform occurrences using a presence or absence (P-A) concept. Evaluation of the P-A test in three different geographical areas demonstrated the procedure to outperform both the membrane filter and fermentation tube (MPN) tests for coliform detection. The use of a P-A test approach is recommended for small water system personnel because of its simplicity and adaptability to minimal resources available to the public system sector in rural and remote regions worldwide. Further adaptation of the test can be made to initiate field inoculation of the sample to be sent to a central laboratory for final processing and data gathering on water quality nationwide.