Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.