Atlantic Region -- Nordic Region -- Central Region -- Mediterranean Region -- Eastern Region -- Cross-European Comparison -- Good Practice in European Recreation Planning and Management -- Lessons Learned, Trends and Strategies for the Future -- Literature -- Erratum. Ulrike Pröbstl, Veronika Wirth, Birgit Elands, and Simon Bell 1. 1 Background to the Study Ulrike Pröbstl and Simon Bell New directions and the need for reform - these two catch phrases dominate the political discussions around forests, forestry, and forest research in many European countries. In Germany there is concern about the reduction of university positions in forestry, as there is across Europe about the new, more economically ori- tated direction of forest management. For example, in 2004 the Bavarian electorate defeated a referendum about the restructuring of the forest administration, largely because of concern about changes to nature conservation and recreation mana- ment. Obviously, the new trends in forest management imposed by commercial interests stand in stark contrast to the overall expectations society has of effective multi-functional forest management (Deutscher Rat für Landesp ege 2004). The administrative desires for reform on the one side and - often contradictory - societal demands on the other are the reason to undertake an investigation of the European model of multi-functional forest management.