"The objectives of this project include: (1) Demonstrate at pilot scale that both conventional and pellet softening Intermediate Concentrate Chemical Stabilization (ICCS) technologies can effectively remove inorganic membrane scale forming constituents (silica, barium, calcium, etc.) and enhance the overall RO [reverse osmosis] system recovery to about 92.5 to 95.5 percent. (2) Compare the pellet vs. conventional ICCS reactors in performance, chemical and power consumption, process footprint, residual quantity, capital, O&M and life cycle costs, environmental impacts and application potentials." -- exec. summ.