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Main Title Acute and chronic toxicity of HCN to fish and invertebrates /
Author Smith, Lloyd L., ; Smith, Jr., Lloyd L. ; Broderius, Steven J. ; Oseid, Donavon M. ; Kimball, Gary L. ; Koenst, Walter M.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Broderius, Steven J.,
Oseid, Donavon M.,
Kimball, Gary L.,
Koenst, Walter M.,
Lind, David T.,
Smith, Lloyd L.
CORP Author Minnesota Univ., St. Paul. Dept. of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife.;Environmental Research Lab.-Duluth, MN.
Publisher Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, Environmental Research Laboratory,
Year Published 1979
Report Number EPA-600/3-79-009; EPA-R-802914; PB293047
Stock Number 22161
OCLC Number 04879204
ISBN pbk.
Subjects Cyanides--Toxicology ; Fishes--Effect of water pollution on
Additional Subjects Toxicology ; Hydrogen cyanide ; Fishes ; Invertebrates ; Bioassay ; Lethal dosage ; Concentration(Composition) ; Sensitivity ; Trout ; Freshwater fishes ; Growth ; pH ; Reproduction(Biology) ; Toxicity ; Experimental design ; Behavior ; Exposure ; Toxic substances ; Brook trout ; Bluegill sunfish ; Fathead minnows ; Pimephales promelas ; Lepomis macrochirus
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EHAM  QH545.W3A38 Region 1 Library/Boston,MA 04/29/2016
EHBD  EPA-600/3-79-009 CEMM/ACESD Library/Narragansett,RI 03/16/2007
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-3-79-009 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 11/21/2023
EJBD  EPA 600-3-79-009 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 06/08/2018
ELBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-3-79-009 Received from HQ AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 10/04/2023
ELDD  EPA-600/3-79-009 CCTE/GLTED Library/Duluth,MN 08/09/2002
ERAD  EPA 600/3-79-009 Region 9 Library/San Francisco,CA 10/22/2012
NTIS  PB-293 047 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation xiv, 115 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm.
Acute and chronic toxicity of hydrogen cyanide to seven fish species and two invertebrates was determined in dynamic flow-through bioassays. The 96-hr LC50 concentrations of HCN for juvenile fish ranged from 57 micrograms/l for rainbow trout at 10C to 191 micrograms/l for field stock fathead minnows at 15C. The fry and juvenile fish were similar in their sensitivity to HCN with eggs the most tolerant stage. The 96-hr LC50 concentrations for invertebrates ranged from 176 micrograms/l for Gammarus to 2328 micrograms/l for Asellus at 18C. Long-term tests conducted with fathead minnows demonstrated that the concentrations of HCN having no adverse effect on egg production was between 12.9 and 19.6 micrograms/l. Chronic tests with brook trout demonstrated that on the basis of spawning success the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was between 5.7 and 11.2 micrograms/l HCN. Long-term tests with bluegills showed that no spawning occurred at HCN concentrations as low as 5.2 micrograms/l. Chronic experiments with invertebrates demonstrated that the highest concentration of HCN having no adverse effect was between 29 and 40 micrograms/l for Asellus and between 16 and 21 micrograms/l for Gammarus. Experiments conducted with intermittent and sublethal diurnal exposure regimes demonstrated that adverse effects of early growth of the fathead minnow are lessened as the exposure period is reduced. Using the toxic unit approach, it also was demonstrated that the Zn-HCN and ammonia-HCN mixtures were more acutely toxic and the Cr-HCN mixture less toxic than what would be predicted from simply additive interaction. This report covers a period from November 1, 1973 to September 30, 1978.
Department of Entomology, Fisheries, and Wildlife, University of Minnesota. Grant no. "Study was conducted in cooperation with University of Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota." "January 1979." Includes bibliographical references (pages 110-113).