||Synergism in the Transformation of Hamster Embryo Cells Treated with Formaldehyde and Adenovirus.
Hatch, G. G. ;
Conklin, P. M. ;
Christensen, C. C. ;
Casto, B. C. ;
Nesnow, S. ;
||Northrop Services, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.;Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
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Formaldehyde is a large production volume chemical widely distributed in research laboratories, industrial workplaces, and home and personal environments. Inhalation studies with formaldehyde have documented its ability to produce squamous cell carcinomas in rats. When primary hamster embryo cells were treated by gaseous exposure to formaldehyde or by incorporation into the medium, a dose-related increase in the frequency of SA7 virus transformation was produced. The length of chemical treatment and the time interval before subsequent addition of transforming virus was critical, with two-hr treatment times as the most efficient. Treatment by gaseous exposure permitted utilization of lower treatment concentrations. Determination of formaldehyde concentrations in culture media of bioassay dishes treated by this method documented that 2.2 micro g/ml produced significantly enhanced viral transformation. Exposure of hamster embryo cells to formaldehyde by these methods produces reproducible and quantitative genotoxic effects.