In November 2003, Acting Deputy Administrator Stephen L. Johnson requested that a small work group be established to conduct a relatively quick internal review (approximately 120 days) of the Superfund program. The main objective of this review was to identify opportunities for program efficiencies that would enable the Agency to begin and ultimately complete more long term cleanups, also known as remedial actions, with current resources. This internal study is intended to complement the work being done by the Superfund subcommittee of the Agencys National Advisory Council for Environmental Policy and Technology (NACEPT). The Agency currently has a backlog of sites that are ready for long term cleanup, but lacks adequate funding to begin the remedial action. To a large extent the shortfall is the direct result of the evolution and maturation of the program, with the universe of Superfund sites expanding in both number and type. Sits now entering the long term cleanup phase tend to be larger, require multiple remedies and are more complex than those originally placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). This new and expanded universe has put increased demands on the program overall. Funding needs have increased further as a greater proportion of the sites have progressed through the study phase and into the typically more costly cleanup phase. A significant challenge before the Agency and Congress, therefore, is how best to navigate this period when there are high funding needs for long term cleanup. The extraordinary demands of the especially large sites make this challenge all the more difficult.