The Environmental Protection Agency is developing rangeland ecological indicators in twelve western states using advanced remote sensing techniques. Fine spectral resolution (hyperspectral) sensors, or imaging spectrometers, can detect the subtle spectral features that make vegetation and soil discrimination possible. This study will use hyperspectral remote sensing data, such as NASA's Airborne Visible-Infra-Red Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), a system capable of 5 to 20 meter spatial resolution. Airborne and satellite remote sensing will provide vegetation mapping at the species level, soil types and characteristics, and landscape information such as erosional features. Vegetation community structure, spatial distribution, and health can then be determined and combined with climatic data to classify rangeland condition and identify disturbed regions.