||Increased Susceptibility to No. 2 Fuel Oil Coincident with Initiation of Particle Feeding in Developing Mud Snails, 'Ilyanassa obsoleta'.
Pechenik, J. A. ;
Miller, D. C. ;
||Environmental Research Lab., Narragansett, RI. ;Tufts Univ., Medford, MA.
Fuel oil ;
Water pollution effects(Animals) ;
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Encapsulated embryos and free-living larvae of Ilyanassa obsoleta were exposed to concentrations of No. 2 fuel oil (water-accommodated fraction, WAF) up to 1.0 ppm. Development of velum pigmentation and release of larvae from egg capsules were delayed in the presence of 1.0 ppm WAF, but exposure to the oil did not increase developmental mortality of encapsulated individuals. Individuals which were prematurely removed from egg capsules and exposed to oil directly suffered no mortality until yolk reserves were depleted and feeding on phytoplankton commenced. Feeding, free-living larvae suffer high mortality at 1.0 ppm WAF. The reduced susceptibility of encapsulated embryos to the oil stress may therefore reflect the importance of toxicant uptake by ingestion (as opposed to diffusion) rather than the degree of protection afforded by encapsulation.