Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


OLS Field Name OLS Field Data
Main Title Reviews of the environmental effects of pollutants. III, Chromium /
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Towill, Leigh Edward.
Publisher Information Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
Year Published 1978
Report Number EPA-600/1-78-023; ORNL/EIS-80; W-7405-ENG-26
Stock Number ORNL/EIS-80
OCLC Number 22712258
Subjects Chromium--Environmental aspects. ; Chromium--Physiological effect. ; Chromium--Toxicology. ; Pollutants--Adverse effects. ; Pollutants--Analysis. ; Chromium--Analysis. ; Environmental pollutants--Adverse effects ; Environmental pollutants--Analysis
Additional Subjects Air pollution ; Chromium ; Cooling towers ; Fossil-fuel power plants ; Incinerators ; Kidneys ; Liver ; Lungs ; Man ; Metal industry ; Mucous membranes ; Textile industry ; Water pollution ; Environmental effects ; Neoplasms ; Nutritional deficiency ; Pathological changes ; Reviews ; Skin diseases ; Ulcers ; ERDA/560306 ; ERDA/500200 ; ERDA/520200 ; ERDA/200200 ; Environmental effects ; Air pollution effects(Humans) ; Toxic substances ; Toxicology ; Metals ; Industrial medicine ; Metabolism ; Physical properties ; Chemical properties ; Standards ; Regulations ; Ecology ; Hazards ; Production ; Utilization ; Soils ; Sampling ; Toxicity ; Physiological effects ; Biochemistry ; Distribution ; Food chains ; Microorganisms ; Plants(Botany) ; Domestic animals ; Wildlife ; Analyzing ; Tables(Data) ; Analytical methods ; Biological effects ; Bioaccumulation ; Environmental health ; Environmental persistence
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Local Library Info
Library Local Subject Local Note
N/A CAS no. 7440-47-3
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EHBD  EPA-600/1-78-023 CEMM/ACESD Library/Narragansett,RI 03/09/2007
EJBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-1-78-023 Headquarters Library/Washington,DC 06/04/2012
EJED  EPA 600-1-78-023 OCSPP Chemical Library/Washington,DC 03/18/1994
EKBD  EPA-600/1-78-023 Research Triangle Park Library/RTP, NC 09/07/2001
EKCD  EPA-600/1-78-023 CEMM/GEMMD Library/Gulf Breeze,FL 05/29/2018
EMBD  EPA/600/1-78/023 NRMRL/GWERD Library/Ada,OK 02/03/1995
NTIS  ORNL/EIS-80 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. 06/23/1988
NTIS  PB-282 796 Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy. 06/23/1988
Collation xvii, 285 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
This study is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary review of the health and environmental effects of chromium and specific chromium compounds. Approximately 500 references are cited. Chromium is abundant in the earth's crust and is widely dispersed in the environment. It is used extensively in refractory materials and chemicals, as a plating to produce hard and smooth surfaces, to prevent corrosion, and in manufacturing stainless and alloy steels. Major atmospheric emissions of chromium arise from metal producing industries, coal-fired plants, municipal incinerators, and cooling towers. Major releases to water are chiefly from the electroplating metal-finishing, textile, and tanning industries. Harmful effects to man or animals seldom result from chromium in ambient air or public drinking water. Reported chromium toxicity occurs mainly from occupational exposure. Trivalent compounds are not highly toxic, but excessive exposure to dusts or mists of hexavalent chromium compounds produces dermatitis, skin lesions, and ulceration and perforation of the nasal septum, as well as liver and kidney damage. With long-term exposure to haxavalent chromium compounds, incidence of human lung cancer increases. No data suggest that these compounds are mutagenic or teratogenic risks. Trace levels of chromium are essential to mammalian life. Irreversible metabolic damage may result from long-standing chromium deficiency. As a result of the refinement of many foods, diets in the United States are often low in chromium; organs of Americans usually contain less chromium than corresponding organs of people from other nations. Except in the lungs, tissue chromium content decreases progressively with age, which suggests that intake of the biologically active chromium in the United States is marginal. (ERA citation 03:048908)
"EPA-600/1-78-023." "ORNL/EIS-80." "May 1977." Includes bibliographical references.