An epidemic of asthma is occurring in the United States. While the epidemic affects people of all ages, children are particularly affected. Nearly 1 in 13 school-aged children has asthma, and the percentage of children with asthma (i.e., prevalence rate) is rising more rapidly in preschool-aged children than in any other age group. Recommendations for action put forward in this initiative are predicated on the principles that federal action must have: A focus on efforts to eliminate the disproportionate impact of asthma in minority populations and those living in poverty. An emphasis on partnerships and community based programs. A commitment to setting measurable and consistent goals for childhood asthma under the Healthy People 2010 program. An investment in evaluation to identify those strategies that are most effective in reducing the burden of asthma so that they may be replicated.