Methods -- Endpoints for Prenatal Exposures in Toxicological Studies -- Congenital Defects Or Adverse Developmental Effects In Vertebrate Wildlife: The Wildlife-Human Connection -- Epidemiological Methods -- Eurocat: Surveillance of Environmental Impact -- Clinical Teratology -- Teratogens -- Dioxins and Congenital Malformations -- Links Between in Utero Exposure to Pesticides and Effects on the Human Progeny does European Pesticide Policy Protect Health? -- Association of Intra-Uterine Exposure to Drugs with Congenital Defects: The Thalidomide Effect -- Congenital Diseases -- Endocrine Disrupter Exposure and Male Congenital Malformations -- Testicular Dysgenesis Syndrome as a Congenital Disease -- Endocrine Disrupters, Steroidogenesis and Inflammation -- Environmental Impact on Congenital Diseases: The Case of Cryptorchidism Where are we now, and Where are we Going? -- Environmental Risk and Sex Ratio in Newborns -- Country Reports -- Congenital Abnormalities in Greece: Functional Evaluation of Statistical Data 1981 - 1995 -- Congenital Anomalies in Bulgaria -- Congenital Anomalies in the British Isles -- European Union-Funded Research on Endocrine Disrupters and Underlying Policy -- Conclusions -- Environmental Impacts on Congenital Anomalies - Information for the Non-Expert Professional. In recent years, increasing attention and resources have been brought to bear on the relationship between the environment and congenital diseases. These diseases were previously thought to be mostly due to genetic causes. Even though the importance of genes as factors in causation is accepted, environmental factors seem to be implicated just as strongly. This book explores some further concepts that have arisen from more recent perceptions of environmental effects and their possible interactions with living systems. Discussion and presentation of old and novel ideas is targeted at developing a more holistic and united perception of the interaction between congenital diseases and the environment. Amongst the topics discussed are: -effects of prenatal exposure to toxic chemicals -intra-uterine exposure to drugs -effects of endocrine disrupters -environmental risk and sex ratio in newborns -surveillance of environmental impact -research and policy This book will be of interest to researchers in environmental science and/or human ecology, health professionals, NGOs, and the general public.