Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) -- From Mechanism and Kinetics to Precise ATRP Synthesis -- Polyelectrolyte Stars and Cylindrical Brushes Made by ATRP: New Building Blocks in Nanotechnology -- Synthesis of Smart Materials by ATRP of Oligo(Ethylene Glycol) Methacrylates -- New Polymers with Optoelectronic Properties by Combination of ATRP, Rop And Coupling Processes -- Click Chemistry -- Synthesis of Functionalized Aliphatic Polyesters by the "Click" Copper-Catalyzed Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition -- Exploration Of 'Click' Chemistry For Microelectronic Applications -- From Novel Block-Like Copolymers to Reactive Nanoparticles: ATRP and "Click" Chemistry as Synthetic Tools -- Polymer- and Colloid-Functionalization Using a Combination Of ATRP and Click Chemistry -- Click Chemistry and Step-Growth Polymerization: The Ideal Combination for the Rejuvenation of Industrial Polymers -- Anionic Polymerization -- New Amphiphilic Nanostructures Based on Block Terpolymers Made By Anionic Polymerization -- Epoxide Activated Anionic Polymerization: Application to the Synthesis of (Co)Polyethers with Controlled Structure and Tuned Properties -- Design of Smart Comb Macromolecules by Combination of Living Anionic and Cationic Polymerizations -- Smart Materials from Living Polypeptides -- Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP) -- Romp: The Method of Choice for Precise Macromolecular Engineering and Synthesis of Smart Materials -- Synthesis of Fluorine-18 Functionalized Nanoparticles for Use as in Vivo Molecular Imaging Agents -- Polymeric Monoliths: Novel Materials for Separation Science, Heterogeneous Catalysis and Regenerative Medicine -- Synthesis of Biodegradable Materials and Chemical Sensors Via Romp -- Ruthenium Catalysts Bearing O-Chelating Carboxylate Ligand: Potential Chemo-Switchable Romp Catalysts -- Design and Application of Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts Featuring S-Chelating Alkylidene Ligands -- Novel Cyclopolymerization Derived Conjugated Polyenes: Smart Materials For Electronics and Sensors -- New Membrane Materials Via Catalytic Polymerization of Bis(Trimethylsilyl)-Substituted Norbornene Type Monomers -- Other Polymerization Methods -- Light Induced Processes for the Synthesis of Polymers With Complex Structures -- Recent Advances in the Functionalization of Aliphatic Polyesters by Ring-Opening Polymerization -- Thermally Degradable Maleimides for Reworkable Adhesives -- Polyurethanes with Metal Chelate Fragments in the Backbone and with Coordination Metal Compounds Nanostructured Systems -- Nanostructured Self-Assembling Systems Based on Functional Poly(Urethane/Siloxane)S -- Cu-Containing Polymer Nanocomposites on the Basis Of Some (Co)Polymers Obtained Using Novel Non-Metallocene Type Ti-Containing Catalysts. Control over macromolecular architecture and resulting material properties has been a central goal of polymer chemistry. There has been much interest in developing new synthetic routes to prepare smart materials with novel compositions and topologies for various applications. The considerable progress in the metal mediated macromolecular engineering over the past decade has had a major impact on the development of well-defined macromolecular architectures and the synthesis of smart materials. Particularly, remarkable strong developments have been observed for the synthesis of smart materials via four metal mediated macromolecular engineering techniques; Anionic, ROMP, ATRP and Click Chemistry. These materials have found uses in advanced microelectronics, technical and biomedical applications as well as in chemical sensors applications. This book is comprised of 27 chapters written by leading scientists from NATO and Partner Countries who have greatly contributed in the area of Anionic, ROMP, ATRP and Click Chemistry. It highlights the fundamental aspects and recent developments of these four powerful techniques and evaluate their potential in the syntheses of smart materials from complex structures (grafts, brushes, dendrimers, etc.) to nanostructures (self-assembly, nano-size, etc) for a wide range of applications. The book reports on the synthesis of a wide range of well-defined complex polymeric systems such as thermoresponsive smart polymers, star copolymers, biocompatible polymers, amphipilic smart nano structured, conducting polymers, self assembled polymers, and hyperbranced polymers.