Foreword / Frances F. Dunwell-- Introduction / Robert E. Henshaw -- The Hudson River Watershed: an abbreviated geography / Robert E. Henshaw -- Part I: History and biology: providing explanations / Robert E. Henshaw -- Historical facts/biological questions / Robert E. Henshaw -- Linkages between people and ecosystems: how did we get from separate to equal? / Stuart Findlay -- Symbioses between biologists and social scientists / Lucille Lewis Johnson -- Part II: River of resources / Robert E. Henshaw -- Hudson River fisheries: once robust, now reduced / Robert A. Daniels, Robert E. Schmidt, and Karin R. Limburg -- Herpetofauna of the Hudson River watershed: a short history / Alvin R. Breisch -- Human impacts on Hudson River morphology and sediments: a result of changing uses and interests / Frank O. Nitsche, Angela L. Slagle, William B.F. Ryan, Suzanne Carbotte, Robin Bell, Timothy C. Kenna, and Roger D. Flood -- The earliest thirteen millennia of cultural adaptation along the Hudson River estuary / Christopher R. Lindner -- Archaeological indices of environmental change and colonial ethnobotany in seventeenth-century Dutch New Amsterdam / Joel W. Grossman -- Linking uplands to the Hudson River: lake to marsh records of climate change and human impact over millennia / Dorothy M. Peteet, Elizabeth Markgraf, Dee C. Pederson, and Sanpisa Sritrairat -- Vegetation dynamics in the northern Shawangunk Mountains: the last three hundred years / John E. Thompson and Paul C. Huth -- Agriculture in the Hudson Basin since 1609 / Simon Litten. Ecology in the field of time: two centuries of interaction between agriculture and native species in Columbia County, New York / Conrad Vispo and Claudia Knab-Vispo -- The introduction and naturalization of exotic ornamental plants in New York's Hudson River Valley / Chelsea Teale -- Part III: River of Commerce / Robert E. Henshaw. -- The rise and demise of the Hudson River ice harvesting industry: urban needs and rural responses / Wendy E. Harris and Arnold Pickman -- Human sanitary waters and waste treatment in New York City / David J. Tonjes, Christine A. O'Connell, Omkar Aphale, and R.L. Swanson -- Foundry Cove: icon of the interaction of industry with aquatic life / Jeffrey S. Levinton -- River city: transporting commerce and culture / Roger Panetta -- Out of the Fray: scientific legacy of environmental regulation of electric generating stations in the HudsonRiver Valley / John R. Young and William P. Dey -- Part IV: River of inspriration / Robert E. Henshaw. -- Birth of the environmental movement in the Hudson River Valley / Albert K. Butzel -- The influence of the Hudson River school of art in the preservation of the river, its natural and cultural landscape, and evolution of the environmental law / Harvey K. Flad-- "Thy fate and mine are not repose": the Hudson and its influence / Geoffrey L. Brackett -- The past as guide to a successful future / Robert E. Henshaw -- Afterword / Robert E. Henshaw.