||Chlorine Dioxide Effects on THMFP, TOXFP, and the Formation of Inorganic By-products.
Werdehoff, K. S. ;
Singer, P. C. ;
||Cincinnati Water Works, OH. ;North Carolina Univ. at Chapel Hill. Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering.;Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
Water treatment ;
Chlorine organic compounds ;
Halogen organic compounds ;
Humic acids ;
Chlorine dioxide ;
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An investigation of raw and finished waters was conducted (1) to determine whether chlorine dioxide pretreatment lowers trihalomethane (THM) and total organic halide (TOX) formation, (2) to evaluate the rate of chlorine dioxide consumption and the corresponding rate and extent of chlorite formation, and (3) to investigate the stability of chlorite in treated water and its interaction with chlorine. Results of these experiments showed that chlorine dioxide can reduce THM and TOX precursor concentrations and that when added to raw water, chlorine dioxide will not persist long enough to maintain oxidizing conditions through flocculation-sedimentation basins. Utilities should be able to meet the recommended limit of 1.0 mg/L for the sum of the residual chlorine dioxide species by not exceeding a chlorine dioxide dosage of 1.2-1.4 mg/L. (Copyright (c) 1987, Journal of American Water Works Association.)