Hemodynamics -- Hemodynamic monitoring -- Support of the failing circulation -- Arrhythmias, pacing, and cardioversion -- Respiratory monitoring -- Airway intubation -- Indications and options for mechanical ventilation -- Practical problems and complications of mechanical ventilation -- Positive end-expiratory and continuous positive airway pressure -- Weaning and discontinuation of mechanical ventilation -- Intensive care unit imaging -- Acid-base disorders -- Fluid and electrolyte disorders -- Blood conservation and transfusion -- Pharmacotherapy -- Nutritional assessment and support -- Analgesia, sedation, and therapeutic paralysis -- General supportive care -- Quality improvement and cost control -- Cardiopulmonary arrest -- Acute coronary syndromes -- Hypertensive emergencies -- Venous thromboembolism -- Oxygenation failure, ARDS, and acute lung injury -- Ventilatory failure -- ICU infections -- Severe sepsis -- Thermal disorders -- Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy -- Clotting and bleeding disorders and anticoagulation therapy -- Hepatic failure -- Endocrine emergencies -- Drug overdose and poisoning -- Neurological emergencies -- Chest trauma -- Acute abdomen -- Gastrointestinal bleeding -- Burns and inhalational injury. This book concisely covers all of the major areas in critical care, with a unique focus on pathophysiology underlying clinical disorders and how pathophysiologic concerns affect treatment options. Chapters are short and easy to read, with little redundancy due to the fact that Marini and Wheeler write almost the entire book themselves. Key Points are presented at the end of chapters. The Fourth Edition includes Controversies in Critical Care boxes in appropriate chapters, which briefly summarize controversial points and present opposing arguments. The authors make specific treatment recommendations in these controversial areas, and the boxes allow those recommendations to be placed in the context of a broader discussion.