The report gives a comprehensive evaluation of factors (environmental, technical, economic, and institutional) influencing solid coal use in industrial boilers. Trends in coal use, recent legislative warrants, and technical and logistic problems in coal use at industrial plants are reviewed. Demographic aspects of the existing industrial boiler population are examined, and regional patterns in fuel consumption, boiler deployment, and the location of major energy consuming industries are identified. Six technologies and five alternate groups of the technologies are compared to the year 2000 on the basis of resource requirements and emissions. Technologies considered are conventional combustion in both a spreader-stoker boiler and with flue-gas desulfurization, fluidized-bed combustion, low-Btu gasification, and physical coal cleaning (alone and combined with the above technologies). Air emissions are further assessed from the perspective of existing air quality problems in industrial areas. Capital and annual costs for each technology are also compared. Sensitivity analysis is included to detail the extent to which varying operating parameters affect steam cost. Fuel choices are evaluated on industry- and region-specific bases. Finally, results of analyses are interpreted from the perspective of achieving environmental and energy goals.