Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog


Main Title Alternatives to chlorination for control of condenser tube bio-fouling /
Author Yu, H. H. S. ; Richardson, G. A. ; Hedley., W. H.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Richardson, G. A.,
Hedley, W. H.,
CORP Author United States. Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory (Research Triangle Park, N.C.)
Publisher Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Energy, Minerals, and Industry, Industrial Environmental Research Laboratory ; For sale by the National Technical Information Service,
Year Published 1977
Report Number EPA-600/7-77-030; MRC-DA-638; EPA-68-02-1320
Stock Number PB-266 269
OCLC Number 03853627
ISBN pbk.
Subjects Power-plants--Environmental aspects ; Water--Purification--Chlorination ; Power-plants--Environmental aspects ; Water--Purification--Chlorination
Additional Subjects Water pollution control ; Electric power plants ; Substitutes ; Fouling prevention ; Condenser tubes ; Industrial waste treatment ; Chlorination ; Fouling organisms ; Potable water ; Cost analysis ; Cooling systems ; Ultraviolet radiation ; Hypochlorites ; Chlorine oxides ; Bromine halides ; Mechanical engineering ; Cleaning ; Chemical cleaning ; Ozone ; Bromine ; Iodine ; Electron beams ; Boilers ; Gamma radiation ; Environmental chemical substitutes ; Bromine chloride
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
EJED  EPA 600/7-77-030 OCSPP Chemical Library/Washington,DC 01/01/1988
EKBD  EPA-600/7-77-030 Research Triangle Park Library/RTP, NC 10/17/2003
ELBD ARCHIVE EPA 600-7-77-030 Received from HQ AWBERC Library/Cincinnati,OH 10/04/2023
ESAD  EPA 600-7-77-030 Region 10 Library/Seattle,WA 03/23/2010
NTIS  PB-266 269 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation vi, 75 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
The report gives results of a study of methods used to reduce free-chlorine residuals in power plant effluents. Most U.S. power plants use chlorine (28,600 tons in 1972) to control biological fouling in their cooling systems, particularly in their condenser tubes. Using chlorine raises many questions regarding the toxicity of chlorinated compounds which may enter public drinking-water systems or harm aquatic organisms in the receiving water. The report considers viable alternatives to current chlorination practices used to decrease passage of ecologically harmful effluents to receiving waters. Alternative methods include: use of other chemicals (BrCl, ClO2, O3, controlled-release pesticides); more efficient methods of chemical application (serial dosing near the condenser inlet, adding dechlorination chemicals, blowdown timing control, chlorination by residuals feedback control); on-line mechanical cleaning (sponge ball system, brush system, hot water backflush system); and physical/chemical treatment. Information on advantages, disadvantages, costs, and applicability for retrofit or new installations of these methods is presented. Promising approaches to reducing free-chlorine residuals in power plant effluents are available.
Prepared under contract 68-02-1320, program element no. EHE624. Issued Mar. 1977. Includes bibliographical references (p. 68-74).