Record Display for the EPA National Library Catalog
RECORD NUMBER: 38 OF 45
|OLS Field Name||OLS Field Data|
|Main Title||Study and interpretation of the chemical characteristics of natural water /|
|Author||Hem, John David,|
|CORP Author||Geological Survey (U.S.)|
|Publisher||Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey ; For sale by the Distribution Branch, Text Products Section, USGS,|
|Subjects||Water chemistry. ; Hydrochemie ; Hydrogeologie ; Chemische analyses. ; Eau--Chimie. ; Wasser. ; Water--Composition|
|Collation||xii, 263 pages : illustrations, maps ; 28 cm|
The chemical composition of natural water is derived from many different sources of solutes, including gases and aerosols from the atmosphere, weathering and erosion of rocks and soil, solution or precipitation reactions occurring below the land surface, and cultural effects resulting from human activities. Broad interrelationships among these processes and their effects can be discerned by application of principles of chemical thermodynamics. Some of the processes of solution or precipitation of minerals can be closely evaluated by means of principles of chemical equilibrium, including the law of mass action and the Nernst equation. Other processes are irreversible and require consideration of reaction mechanisms and rates. Taken together and in application with the further influence of the general circulation of all water in the hydrologic cycle, the chemical principles and environmental factors form a basis for the developing science of natural-water chemistry. Fundamental data used in the determination of water quality are obtained by the chemical analysis of water samples in the laboratory or onsite sensing of chemical properties in the field. Sampling is complicated by changes in the composition of moving water and by the effects of particulate suspended material. Some constituents are unstable and require onsite determination or sample preservation. More than 60 constituents and properties are included in water analyses frequently enough to provide a basis for consideration of the sources from which each is generally derived, the most probable forms of elements and ions in solution, solubilitycontrols, expected concentration ranges, and other chemical factors. Mechanisms that control concentrations of elements commonly present in amounts less than a few tens of micrograms per liter cannot always be easily ascertained, but present information suggests that many are controlled by solubility of their hydroxides or carbonates or by sorption on solid particles. Many dissolved organic compounds can now be specifically determined. The relationships of water quality to hydrogeologic characteristics, such as stream discharge rate or ground-water flow patterns, can be shown by mathematical equations, graphs, and maps. About 80 water analyses selected from the literature are tabulated to illustrate the relationships described, and some of these, along with many others that are not tabulated, are also used in demonstrating graphing and mapping techniques.
One folded map, 1 overlay, and 2 plates (1 folded) in pocket. Shipping list no.: 85-1010-P. Includes bibliographical references (pages 225-249) and index. Item 625.
Deze derde herziene uitgave op het gebied van de chemische karakteristieken van natuurlijk water (grond- en oppervlaktewater) is uitgegaan van hetzelfde basis-organisatiemodel en dient dezelfde algemene doelstellingen als voorgaande uitgaven