General Introduction -- Emissions of Chemicals to The Environment -- Transport, Accumulation and Transformation Processes -- Environmental Exposure Assessment -- Human Exposure Assessement -- Toxicity Testing for Human Health Risk Assessment -- Ecotoxicological Effects -- Data:Needs, Availability, Sources and Evaluation -- Predicting Fate-Related Physicochemical Properties -- Predicting Toxicological and Ecotoxicological Endpoints -- Intelligent Testing Strategies -- The Management of Industrial Chemicals in the Eu -- The Management of Industrial Chemicals in the USA -- The Management of Industrial Chemicals in Japan -- The Assessment and Management of Industrial Chemicals in Canada -- The Oecd Chemicals Programme. This book is the 2nd edition of a book published in 1995. The first book was written parallel to major developments in the science of risk assessment following the introduction of EU-legislation on industrial chemicals in the period 1970-1995. The present edition reflects the progress and experience since 1995 and again aims at providing background and training material for a new generation of risk assessors, specifically for those who will be involved in implementing legislation in the EU (REACH, the new legislative framework for industrial chemicals) and, in addition, the USA, Japan and Canada. The book is an introduction to risk assessment of chemicals and contains basic background information on sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for the estimation of exposure of plant and animal species in the environment and humans exposed via the environment, consumer products, and at the workplace. This book includes chapters on environmental chemistry, toxicology and ecotoxicology as well as information on data requirements, data estimation methodologies and intelligent testing strategies. It describes the basic principles and methods of risk assessment in the legislative frameworks of the EU, USA, Japan, and Canada. It also provides an overview of the OECD Chemicals Program. The book is intended to be used by those who are involved in risk assessment of chemicals in government, research institutes, academia and industry as well as by students in technology, health and environmental sciences.