An emissions inventory that identifies and quantifies a country's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gases is essential for addressing climate change. This inventory adheres to both (1) a comprehensive and detailed set of methodologies for estimating sources and sinks of anthropogenic greenhouse gases, and (2) a common and consistent mechanism that enables Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) to compare the relative contribution of different emission sources and greenhouse gases to climate change. In 1992, the United States signed and ratified the UNFCCC. As stated in Article 2 of the UNFCCC, The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner. Parties to the Convention, by ratifying, shall develop, periodically update, publish and make availablenational inventories of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, using comparable methodologies. The United States views this report as an opportunity to fulfill these commitments. This chapter summarizes the latest information on U.S. anthropogenic greenhouse gas emission trends from 1990 through 2007. To ensure that the U.S. emissions inventory is comparable to those of other UNFCCC Parties, the estimates presented here were calculated using methodologies consistent with those recommended in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC/UNEP/OECD/IEA 1997), the IPCC Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2000), and the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry (IPCC 2003). Additionally, the U.S. emission inventory has begun to incorporate new methodologies and data from the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC 2006). The structure of this report is consistent with the UNFCCC guidelines for inventory reporting. For most source categories, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodologies were expanded, resulting in a more comprehensive and detailed estimate of emissions.