Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are primarily used as plasticizers in polyvinyl chloride resins. These compounds are environmentally ubiquitous due to their widespread use and ease of extraction. PAEs have been detected in soil, water, air, and food indicating widespread potential for human exposure. Their presence has also been detected in human tissues. PAEs are rapidly absorbed from the intestine, skin, peritoneum, blood, and lungs. Gastroinestinal absorption is the most common route of entry. Acute animal toxicity of PAEs is low and generally tends to be inversely related to the molecular weight of the compound. Subchronic and chronic toxicity includes decreased body weight and increased liver and kidney weights. Target organs of PAEs include the testes and the liver, Although these effects have not been observed with all PAEs. Reproductive effects have been reported following exposure to PAEs during mating and gestation. DEHP has been shown to decrease fertility and reproductive performance in mice.