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Main Title Atmospheric Ammonia Detecting emission changes and environmental impacts / [electronic resource] :
Author Sutton, Mark A.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Reis, Stefan.
Baker, Samantha M.H.
Publisher Springer Netherlands,
Year Published 2009
Call Number TD881-890
ISBN 9781402091216
Subjects Environmental sciences ; Environmental chemistry ; Environmental law ; Environmental toxicology ; Nature Conservation ; Environmental protection
Internet Access
Description Access URL
Collation XXIII, 464 p. online resource.
Due to license restrictions, this resource is available to EPA employees and authorized contractors only
Contents Notes
Ammonia Critical Thresholds -- Reassessment of Critical Levels for Atmospheric Ammonia -- Potential for the Further Development and Application of Critical Levels to Assess the Environmental Impacts of Ammonia -- Long-Term Cumulative Exposure Exacerbates the Effects of Atmospheric Ammonia on an Ombrotrophic Bog: Implications for Critical Levels -- The Application of Transects to Assess the Effects of Ammonia on Woodland Groundflora -- Estimation of the Ammonia Critical Level for Epiphytic Lichens Based on Observations at Farm, Landscape and National Scales -- Mapping Ammonia Emissions and Concentrations for Switzerland - Effects on Lichen Vegetation -- Over Which Averaging Period is the Ammonia Critical Level Most Precautionary? -- Macrolichens on Twigs and Trunks as Indicators of Ammonia Concentrations Across the UK - a Practical Method -- Assessment of Critical Levels of Atmospheric Ammonia for Lichen Diversity in Cork-Oak Woodland, Portugal -- Temporal Trends in Atmospheric Ammonia -- Linking Ammonia Emission Trends to Measured Concentrations and Deposition of Reduced Nitrogen at Different Scales -- Long-Term Record (1981-2005) of Ammonia and Ammonium Concentrations at K-Puszta Hungary and the Effect of Sulphur Dioxide Emission Change on Measured and Modelled Concentrations -- Assessment of Ammonia and Ammonium Trends and Relationship to Critical Levels in the UK National Ammonia Monitoring Network (NAMN) -- Review of Published Studies Estimating the Abatement Efficacy of Reduced-Emission Slurry Spreading Techniques -- Analysis of Ammonia Hotspots -- Ammonia Deposition Near Hot Spots: Processes, Models and Monitoring Methods -- Standardised Grasses as Biomonitors of Ammonia Pollution Around Agricultural Point Sources -- Soluble Ammonium in Plants as a Bioindicator for Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition: Refinement and Testing of a Practical Method -- Spatial Planning as a Complementary Tool to Abate the Effects of Atmospheric Ammonia Deposition at the Landscape Scale -- Regional Modelling of Atmospheric Ammonia -- Modelling of the Atmospheric Transport and Deposition of Ammonia at a National and Regional Scale -- Application of a Lagrangian Model FRAME to Estimate Reduced Nitrogen Deposition and Ammonia Concentrations in Poland -- Application of the EMEP Unified Model to the UK with a Horizontal Resolution of 5 X 5 km2 -- Conclusions and Outlook -- Critical Levels for Ammonia -- Detecting Change in Atmospheric Ammonia Following Emission Changes -- Assessment Methods for Ammonia Hot-Spots -- Modelling the National and Regional Transport and Deposition of Ammonia -- Reliability of Ammonia Emission Estimates and Abatement Efficiencies -- Ammonia Policy Context and Future Challenges -- Synthesis and Summary for Policy Makers. Atmospheric ammonia is increasingly being recognized as a pollutant of key environmental concern. Ammonia contributes to several environmental problems, including direct toxic effects on vegetation, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, leading to the eutrophication and acidification of sensitive ecosystem, and to the formation of secondary particulate matter in the atmosphere, with effects on human health, atmospheric visibility and global radiative balance. Ammonia emissions are increasing rapidly in many parts of the world, so that these environmental concerns are expected to grow in future. In Europe, efforts are currently being made to reduce ammonia emissions, alongside reductions in other air pollutants, notably sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. However, reducing ammonia emissions has proved uncertain and challenging, with only modest regional reductions achieved to date. As the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are reduced, ammonia is therefore increasingly dominating the air pollution climate of Europe and the consequent environmental impacts. It was in this context that the leading international experts met in Edinburgh in December 2006 under the auspices of the UN-ECE Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution to review the current state of the science of ammonia in the atmosphere. Specifically, the international workshop was a joint effort between several bodies of the Convention: the Ammonia Expert Group, the Working Group on Effects and the Task Force on Measurement and Modelling, together with the COST 729 and the NitroEurope Integrated Project. This book reports the underpinning information in the form of several major reviews, combined with supporting chapters on recent research results, to provide an up-to-date scientific synthesis in relation to four key themes: Re-evaluation of the critical thresholds for ammonia effects on sensitive plants and habitats