The report presents the results of a workshop convened by the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to examine research needs in biotechnology and the environment. The workshop was held at Coolfont Conference Center, Berkeley Springs, West Virginia, 29 April - 1 May 1984. Four draft papers prepared by EPA staff - on environmental effects, health effects, monitoring and quality assurance and control technologies - served to focus discussions at the workshop. Two of these papers, revised following the workshop, are included in the report. In the two other cases, the workshop review groups, and AAAS and EPA staff determined that supplementary papers by outside individuals were warranted in order to better treat the issues considered at the workshop. The report, therefore, represents a blend of the workshop discussions and papers and additional work performed subsequently.