Methodological rules for four classes of scientific uncertainty / Kristin Shrader-Frechette -- Uncertainties in the disposal of high-level nuclear waste / John Lemons -- Scientific uncertainty as a constraint to environmental problem solving : large-scale ecosystems / Carl F. Jordan and Christopher Miller -- Uncertainty in managing ecosystems sustainably / Richard A. Carpenter -- Scientific uncertainty and environmental policy : four pollution case studies / Judith S. Weis -- Uncertainties associated with extrapolating from toxicologic responses in laboratory systems to the responses of natural systems / John Cairns, Jr. and Eric P. Smith -- The conservation of biodiversity : scientific uncertainty and the burden of proof / John Lemons -- Can we resolve uncertainty in marine fisheries management? / Charles F. Cole -- Scientific uncertainty and water resources management / Larry W. Canter -- Scientific uncertainty and the environmental impact assessment process in the United States / Larry W. Canter -- Implications of scientific uncertainty for environmental impact assessment : the international environment / Mahmoud Kh. El-Sayed -- Environmental problem solving in an age of electronic communications : toward an integrated or reductionist model? / James Perry and Elizabeth Leigh Vanderklein -- The implications of scientific uncertainty for environmental law / Donald A. Brown and Patrick Zaepfel -- Science assumptions and misplaced certainty in natural resources and environmental problem solving / Lynton K. Caldwell. Four major classes of uncertainty are addressed in this volume: framing uncertainty, modeling uncertainty, statistical uncertainty, and decision-theoretical uncertainty. All are common to the environmental sciences. As environmental problems become more complex, it is questionable whether known methods, models, data, and techniques can provide adequate information to make informed decisions with reasonable certainty. However, delaying decisions could mean the continuation of a damaging practice. This book offers greater understanding of the implications of scientific uncertainty, and provides specific guidelines for decision making given existing limitations.