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Main Title Retrospective epidemiological study of disease associated with wastewater utilization {MICROFICHE}
Author Shuval, Hillel I. ; Fattal, B. ; Wax, Y.
Other Authors
Author Title of a Work
Fattal, Badri.
Wax, Yochanan.
CORP Author Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel).;Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Publisher U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Health Effects Research Laboratory ;
Year Published 1984
Report Number EPA-R-805174; EPA-600/1-84-006
Stock Number PB84-190727
Subjects Epidemiology
Additional Subjects Waste water ; Diseases ; Epidemiology ; Israel ; Foreign countries ; Medical records ; Patients ; Environmental health ; Enteric diseases ; Health risks
Library Call Number Additional Info Location Last
NTIS  PB84-190727 Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. 07/26/2022
Collation 150 p. ; 28 cm.
A retrospective epidemiological study was carried out on the association between enteric disease incidence and wastewater utilization in 79 kibbutzim (cooperative agricultural settlements) in Israel having a population of 32,672. Medical records on disease incidence were collected from patient files at each kibbutz clinic. Environmental data on location of sewage irrigated tracts, wind direction and source of water supply was collected for each kibbutz. The kibbutzim were divided into 4 categories: (1) 30 irrigating with wastewater effluent in addition to freshwater; (2) 28 not utilizing effluent for any purpose; (3) 10 using wastewater effluent in fish ponds; (4) 11 which practiced 2 consecutive years of effluent utilization and another 2 consecutive years of effluent utilization and another 2 consecutive years in which no effluent was utilized for any purpose of vice versa. The high degree of intra- and inter-kibbutz variations of disease rate in the 68 kibbutzim in categories 1-3 resulted in conflicting findings and anomalies which did not provide a basis for drawing conclusions.
Caption title. Distributed to depository libraries in microfiche. "May 1984." "EPA-600/1-84-006." Microfiche.