Introduction / Paul G. Risser -- Long-term ecological research in the United States : a federal perspective / James T. Callahan -- The role of study sites in long-term ecological research : a UK experience / O. William Heal -- Expanding the temporal and spatial scales of ecological research and comparison of divergent ecosystems : roles for LTER in the United States / John J. Magnuson, Timothy K. Kratz, Thomas M. Frost, Carl J. Bowser, Barbara J. Benson, and Redwood Nero -- Long-term studies : past experience and recommendations for the future / Steward T.A. Pickett -- Benefits from long-term ecosystem research : some examples from Rothamsted / A.E. Johnston -- Long-term ecological research : a pedological perspective / Darwin W. Anderson -- On long-term ecological research in Australia / Mark Westoby -- Computer models and long-term ecological research / H.H. Shugart, G.B. Bonan, D.L. Urban, W.K. Lauenroth, W.J. Paxton and G.M. Hornberger -- Model- and strategy-driven geographical maps for ecological research and management / Wolf-Dieter Grossmann -- Long-term ecological research : International Workshop II / E.H. Trotter and James R. Gosz -- Current status and future of long-term ecological research / Paul G. Risser, Jerry M. Melillo and James H. Gosz -- Summary / Paul G. Risser.