Title X of the Housing and Community Development Act, known as the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992, contains legislation designed to evaluate and reduce exposures to lead in paint, dust, and soil in the nation's housing. As amended in Title X, Section 403 of Title IV of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), EPA is required to promulgate regulations which shall identify, for the purposes of this title and the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazards Reduction Act of 1992, lead-based paint hazards, lead-contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated soil. Integral to the development of the Section 403 mandated standards (especially for soil) is information on the sources, extent, and geographic breadth of elevated lead contamination of soil (elevated because lead is naturally present in soil in many geographic regions). Such information provides perspective when considering what level of lead in soil will be defined as hazardous, and is suggestive of the potential efficacy of some interventions prompted by promulgation of the standards. The purpose of the study summarized in this report was to search and review the scientific literature on the sources of elevated soil-lead concentrations.