In April 2001, a large dust storm formed over the Gobi desert in northern China. Satellite remote sensing data and analyses of meteorological conditions were used in this study to follow the dust cloud from China, over the Pacific Ocean, and then coast to coast across the United States over a period of several weeks. Chemical speciation data were used to estimate the PM2.5 mass increment associated with the Asian dust, and peak concentrations were plotted to show the progression of elevated concentrations across the contiguous United States. Meteorological analyses, including air parcel trajectories, were used to link the dust cloud overhead to the concentrations below. Also, the contribution of Asian dust to the total mass concentrations measured at the monitors was examined with respect to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) health standards and Air Quality Index (AQI) for particulate matter. The findings suggest that this transport event contributed to higher PM concentrations in several areas across the United States, with average estimated contributions ranging from 3.1 to 7.4 mg/m3. Because the event occurred in the springtime when daily concentrations of other PM components are generally low, there were relatively few areas with unhealthy AQI days. Nevertheless, this event possibly contributed to unhealthy AQI days in three areas. In addition, it raised the 3-year average related to the long-term PM2.5 health standard by an estimated 0.1 mg/m3 in the affected regions. For most sites, this is insignificant, but there are implications for sites with 3-year averages just above the level of the standard.