Part I. Counterfactual Causality and Empirical Research in the Social Sciences -- 1. Introduction -- 2. The counterfactual model; Part II. Estimating Causal Effects by Conditioning -- 3. Causal graphs, identification, and models of causal exposure -- 4. Matching estimators of causal effects -- 5. Regression estimators of causal effects -- Part III. Estimating Causal Effects When Simple Conditioning is Ineffective -- 6. Identification in the absence of a complete model of causal exposure -- 7. Natural experiments and instrumental variables -- 8. Mechanisms and causal explanation -- 9. Repeated observations and the estimation of causal effects -- Part IV. Conclusions -- 10. Counterfactual causality and future empirical research in the social sciences. "In this book, the counterfactual model of causality for observational data analysis is presented, and methods for causal effect estimation are demonstrated using examples from sociology, political science, and economics."--Jacket.