|Fine Particulate Matter Emissions from Candles.
Guo, Z. ;
Mosley, R. ;
McBrian, J. ;
Fortmann, R. ;
|ARCADIS Geraghty and Miller, Inc., Research Triangle Park, NC.;Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Prevention and Control Div.
Air pollution control ;
Test methods ;
Indoor air pollution ;
Stationary sources ;
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The paper gives results of testing five types of candles, purchased from local stores, for fine particulate matter (PM) emissions under close-to-realistic conditions in a research house. The test method allows for determination of both the emission and deposition rates. Most tests revealed low PM emission rates: in only two was there excessive sooting, with the PM concentration approaching 1000 micrograms per cubic meter with six and nine burning wicks. Wax breakthrough significantly increased the emissions rate. Smoldering generated more fine PM than several houses of normal burning, causing very high concentrations in a short period of time, which raises concern with potentially acute health effects, especially for children and the elderly. A simple source model is proposed to represent both the stable PM emissions during normal combustion conditions and the sudden concentration surge following flame extinction.