||Cost Models for Small Systems Technologies: U.S. Experience.
Clark, R. M. ;
Adams, J. Q. ;
Eilers, R. G. ;
||Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH. Water Engineering Research Lab.
Water treatment ;
Cost estimates ;
Operating costs ;
Cost analysis ;
Construction costs ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
The objective of water treatment is to provide safe and aesthetically acceptable water to customers in sufficient quantities at reasonable costs. These problems are amplified in small communities that have insufficient money or qualified personnel to construct and operate a water treatment facility. Costs of construction and operation for water treatment are a major consideration in selecting treatment alternatives. The Drinking Water Research Division of EPA has developed a series of cost curves that simulate the cost of water treatment processes. This paper contains a series of cost curves that can be used to estimate construction and operation and maintenance costs for a selected set of water treatment unit processes.