||Bladder Cancer in Massachusetts Related to Chlorinated and Chloraminated Drinking Water: A Case-Control Study.
Zierler, S. ;
Feingold, L. ;
Danley, R. A. ;
Craun, G. ;
||Brown Univ., Providence, RI. Dept. of Community Health. ;Massachusetts Dept. of Public Health, Boston.;Health Effects Research Lab., Research Triangle Park, NC.
Potable water ;
Bladder neoplasms ;
Water pollution effects(Humans) ;
Drinking water ;
||Most EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown. Check with individual libraries about paper copy.
Studies show consumers of chlorinated drinking water have a small excess of bladder cancer. Risk may have been underestimated because of confounding and misclassification of exposure status. A case-control study detailed residential histories obtained by telephone interviews with informants of 614 individuals who died of primary bladder cancer and 1,074 individuals who died of other causes. Their surface water had been disinfected with chlorine or a combination of chlorine and ammonia (chloramine) since 1938. The mortality ratio for bladder cancer among individuals who resided in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chlorine, compared to individuals who resided in communities supplied with drinking water disinfected with chloramine, was 1.6 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-2.1). When the comparison group was restricted to individuals who died of lymphoma, the mortality odds ratio was 2.7 (95% confidence interval = 1.7-4.3).