||Characterization of vessel wastes in Duluth-Superior Harbor.
Gumtz, Garth D. ;
Bumtz, Garth D. ;
Jordan, David M. ;
||Environmental Quality Systems, Inc., Rockville, Md.;National Environmental Research Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
||Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
||EPA 670/2-74-097; EPA-R-802772
Water pollution ;
Lake Superior ;
Waste water ;
Ballast tanks ;
Bilge pumps ;
Cargo restraint ;
||Region 3 Library/Philadelphia, PA
||Some EPA libraries have a fiche copy filed under the call number shown.
||52 p. illus.
Five wastes from United States, Canadian, and foreign commercial vessels were studied at the Duluth-Superior Harbor during late 1973: Bilge water, non-oily ballast water, sewage, garbage/refuse, and dunnage. Vessels generate bilge water at about 6,650 liters/hour with an average oil content of about 225 milligrams/liter. Waste oil which is apparently discharged to bilges (about 600 grams/hour) appears more consistent than either of these two parameters. Bilge water is a substantial pollution problem: On the average about 40 liters (10 gallons) of oil may be discharged during each day a vessel spends in the harbor. Although containing about twice the common water quality contaminants as the harbor waters, ballast water is not a significant environmental problem. Large quantities are, however, discharged: About 9,000 metric tons/visit by lake and bulk carriers. Sewage is apparently generated onboard vessels consistent with accepted design rates (100 gallons/man/day).
Grant no. R-802772. Bibliography: p. 48.