||Impact of Producing Low-Sulfur, Unleaded Motor Gasoline on the Petroleum Refining Industry. Volume I. Project Summary.
Godley, N. ;
Johnson, S. G. ;
Johnson, W. A. ;
Kittrell, J. R. ;
Pollitt., T. G. ;
||Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Cambridge, Mass.;Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.
Petroleum refining ;
Air pollution abatement ;
Economic impact ;
Petroleum refineries ;
Energy supply(Economics) ;
Energy demand(Economics) ;
Crude oil ;
Economic analysis ;
Computerized simulation ;
Petrochemical industry ;
Low sulfur fuels ;
Unleaded gasoline ;
Atlantic Coast Region(United States) ;
Pacific Coast Region(United States) ;
Midwest Region(United States) ;
Texas Gulf Coast(United States) ;
Louisiana Gulf Coast(United States) ;
Gulf Coast Region(United States)
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The impact on the U.S. petroleum refining industry of possible EPA regulations restricting the sulfur content of unleaded gasoline is discussed. Sulfur levels of 100 ppm and 50 ppm are considered. Computer models representative of specific refineries in six geographical regions of the U.S. were developed as the basis for determining the impact on the existing refining industry. New refinery construction during the period under analysis (1975-1985) was considered by development of separate computer models rather than expansion of existing refineries. These models were used to assess investment and energy requirements and the incremental cost to manufacture low sulfur unleaded gasoline. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of variations in key assumptions on the results of the study, such as the type of imported crude oil available for future domestic refining and the projected sulfur level of residual fuel oil manufactured in the U.S. Other sensitivity studies examined in more detail the processing options available to meet the two sulfur levels and the assumptions regarding sulfur distribution in refinery process streams.